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Diversity and Leadership 
Leadership Theories 2FE017 
Fall 2014 
Yuliya Ponomareva 
yuliya.ponomareva@lnu.se
Why to study diversity?
Organizational Diversity - “any significant difference that 
distinguishes one individual from another” (Williams and 
O’R...
Multiple Forms of Diversity 
- Ethnic diversity 
- Gender 
- Age 
- Education 
- Sexual orientation 
- Socioeconomic level
Relative Depth of Diversity Characteristics 
Surface level elements of diversity 
(demographic diversity) tend to 
become ...
Deeper level elements of diversity 
- Socio-economic background 
- World view 
- Values
How do we react on diversity? 
- Social Identity theory 
- Self-categorization theory 
- Similarity attraction theory 
- O...
Social attributions – a potential reason for 
discrimination 
• Organizations consist of groups with different power, 
sta...
Empirical evidence (Park and Westphal, 
2013): 
Demographic minority CEOs are especially likely to receive 
blame from the...
“DOUBLE-EDGED SWORD” of Diversity 
Team diversity Studies: 
Creativity vs. Conflict 
2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva
© X96lee15/https://colleges.niche.com/ CC-BY-SA-3.0 
Demographic Faultlines
Interaction effects of diversity characteristics 
Increased Alienation from the society 
2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva
Practical implications 
Managing diversity in organizations: 
Multicultural organizations: good, bad, or just not managed ...
Law on discrimination in Sweden: 7 criteria 
(Diskrimineringslagen (2008:567) 
Gender 
• Ethnicity 
• Transgender expressi...
Leader’s role in managing diversity 
“It is based on the articulation and implementation of 
explicit values that promote ...
What is Gender? 
Gender is a social phenomenon that includes social, psychological, cultural, and 
behavioral aspects of b...
Causes of Gender Inequality 
- Implicit theories about gender 
- Gender stereotypes 
- Role expectations 
2FE017 Yuliya Po...
Long history of “gender-neutral” view on organization 
Hegemony of heterosexual male values and male monopoly 
on agenda s...
Ontario Chamber of Commerce 
https://www.flickr.com/CC BY-ND 2.0 
The Rise of Gender Research 
Labour market shortage 
Wom...
Feminist Perspective 
The research within feministic tradition is largely concerned 
with the issues of inequality and exp...
Some Statistics 
21.8 % female representation in parliment 
9 female heads of the state, 15 the heads fo the goverment 
(u...
Salary Gap Index (Catalys,2006) 
2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva
Why so few women reach the top? 
(Catalyst, 2006) 
2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva
Sex-based Discrimination 
Glass Ceiling is the invisible barrier preventing women from 
achieving high positions within an...
Path dependence of Gender Issues 
Gender issues tend to be persistent over time. 
2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva
Change in Male roles 
- New occupations 
- Child care obligations 
- Clothing, perfume 
- Toys for children
Effective leadership 
2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva
Differences between male and female leadership 
styles 
Mixed and inconsistent results 
No evidence that leaders of one ge...
“there are likely to be excellent, average, and poor managerial performers 
within each sex.” (Powell, 1990, p.74) 
2FE017...
Research Indications 
Women are more prone to practice democratic, participative 
leadership styles 
Women are more strict...
TEDtalk on Gender Diversity 
http://www.ted.com/talks/sheryl_sandberg_why_we_have_too_More TEDtalks on Diversity: 
http://...
Diversity issues must be recognized and cared for (Billing and Sundin, 2006) 
Legal support for victims of discrimination ...
Conclusions 
The concept of diversity is multidimensional 
Gender is a socially constructed phenomenon 
Gender is an impor...
2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva 
References: 
Billing, Y.D. & Sundin, E. (2006). From managing equality to managing diversity: a ...
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This presentation was part of the leadership theories course within the management program at bachelors level.

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Gender diversity and Leadership

  1. 1. Diversity and Leadership Leadership Theories 2FE017 Fall 2014 Yuliya Ponomareva yuliya.ponomareva@lnu.se
  2. 2. Why to study diversity?
  3. 3. Organizational Diversity - “any significant difference that distinguishes one individual from another” (Williams and O’Reilly, 1998 p. 102). 2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva
  4. 4. Multiple Forms of Diversity - Ethnic diversity - Gender - Age - Education - Sexual orientation - Socioeconomic level
  5. 5. Relative Depth of Diversity Characteristics Surface level elements of diversity (demographic diversity) tend to become less influential over time 2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva
  6. 6. Deeper level elements of diversity - Socio-economic background - World view - Values
  7. 7. How do we react on diversity? - Social Identity theory - Self-categorization theory - Similarity attraction theory - Opposites attract?
  8. 8. Social attributions – a potential reason for discrimination • Organizations consist of groups with different power, status and prestige (Hogg, Terry, 2000) • Ingroup – outgroup bias • Dispersonification
  9. 9. Empirical evidence (Park and Westphal, 2013): Demographic minority CEOs are especially likely to receive blame from the media and other CEOs for poor performance of their firms. “Matthew effect” – individuals with higher social status are able to derive greater benefits for their achievements than individuals with lower social status. “Attribution error” – a tendency to evaluate in-group members more positively than the out-group members. Conclusions: Minority CEOs are not only disadvantaged in terms of access to the corporate elite, they continue to be disadvantaged during their careers as CEOs.
  10. 10. “DOUBLE-EDGED SWORD” of Diversity Team diversity Studies: Creativity vs. Conflict 2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva
  11. 11. © X96lee15/https://colleges.niche.com/ CC-BY-SA-3.0 Demographic Faultlines
  12. 12. Interaction effects of diversity characteristics Increased Alienation from the society 2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva
  13. 13. Practical implications Managing diversity in organizations: Multicultural organizations: good, bad, or just not managed effectively? 2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva
  14. 14. Law on discrimination in Sweden: 7 criteria (Diskrimineringslagen (2008:567) Gender • Ethnicity • Transgender expression Age • Disability • Sexual orientation • Religion or view of belief
  15. 15. Leader’s role in managing diversity “It is based on the articulation and implementation of explicit values that promote an agenda of equality, fairness and respect.” (Walker et al., 2005: 3) • Recognition: job selection, equal treatment • Conflict suppression • Avoiding biases: breaking the currently dominating ”white, male, hetherosexual, middle class, middle aged” view on leadership (Coleman, 2012).
  16. 16. What is Gender? Gender is a social phenomenon that includes social, psychological, cultural, and behavioral aspects of being a man or a woman (Prasad, 2005). Sex is a biological criteria applied to classify people as males or females (West 2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva and Zimmerman, 1987) “No country in the world has achieved gender equality.” (Global Gender Gap Report, 2010)
  17. 17. Causes of Gender Inequality - Implicit theories about gender - Gender stereotypes - Role expectations 2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva Culture and traditions
  18. 18. Long history of “gender-neutral” view on organization Hegemony of heterosexual male values and male monopoly on agenda setting (Hearn and Parkin, 1987) Gender research started to develop along the areas where women were persistently excluded: art, literature, history 2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva
  19. 19. Ontario Chamber of Commerce https://www.flickr.com/CC BY-ND 2.0 The Rise of Gender Research Labour market shortage Women’s access to education Improved childcare Feminist movement 2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva
  20. 20. Feminist Perspective The research within feministic tradition is largely concerned with the issues of inequality and exploitation of women. Different research streams in feminism (Prasad, 2005): liberal feminism experience feminism radical feminism poststructural feminism. 2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva
  21. 21. Some Statistics 21.8 % female representation in parliment 9 female heads of the state, 15 the heads fo the goverment (unwomen.org) Gender Gap Index 2012 (World Bank, 2012) 2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva
  22. 22. Salary Gap Index (Catalys,2006) 2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva
  23. 23. Why so few women reach the top? (Catalyst, 2006) 2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva
  24. 24. Sex-based Discrimination Glass Ceiling is the invisible barrier preventing women from achieving high positions within an organization. Main Reasons:  Social Stigma  Higher standards of performance  Limited access to social and professional networks  Work-Family conflict 2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva
  25. 25. Path dependence of Gender Issues Gender issues tend to be persistent over time. 2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva
  26. 26. Change in Male roles - New occupations - Child care obligations - Clothing, perfume - Toys for children
  27. 27. Effective leadership 2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva
  28. 28. Differences between male and female leadership styles Mixed and inconsistent results No evidence that leaders of one gender are more effective than leaders of another one (Eagly, Karau, & Makhijani, 1995) 2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva
  29. 29. “there are likely to be excellent, average, and poor managerial performers within each sex.” (Powell, 1990, p.74) 2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva
  30. 30. Research Indications Women are more prone to practice democratic, participative leadership styles Women are more strictly evaluated in a male-dominated environment 2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva (Eagly and Johnson, 1995)
  31. 31. TEDtalk on Gender Diversity http://www.ted.com/talks/sheryl_sandberg_why_we_have_too_More TEDtalks on Diversity: http://www.ted.com/talks/thandie_newton_embracing_otherness_
  32. 32. Diversity issues must be recognized and cared for (Billing and Sundin, 2006) Legal support for victims of discrimination has to be developed and enforced Policies and institutions of gender equality which would help women to balance their professional and family life must be enforced and monitored Equal employment opportunities Simple inclusion of diversity in the workforce is not a solution by itself! 2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva
  33. 33. Conclusions The concept of diversity is multidimensional Gender is a socially constructed phenomenon Gender is an important factor within organizations Gender inequality remains to be persistent within social structure: unequal pay distribution, companies are not fully capitalizing on women's’ potential, few women in leadership positions. Effective Leadership incorporates both traditionally viewed as masculine and feminine characteristics 2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva
  34. 34. 2FE017 Yuliya Ponomareva References: Billing, Y.D. & Sundin, E. (2006). From managing equality to managing diversity: a critical Scandinavian perspective on gender and workplace diversity, Handbook of Workplace Diversity, 95-120, Eds. Konrad, A.M., Prasad, P., & Pringle, J.K., London: Sage Publications. Bryans, P. & Mavin, S. (2003).Women learning to become managers: Learning to fit or playing a different game? Management Learning 34(1), 111-134. Byrne, D. (1971). The attraction paradigm. New York: Academic Press. Coleman, M. (2012). Leadership and diversity, Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 40: 592. Eagly, A. H., Karau, S., & Makhijani, M. (1995). Gender and the effectiveness of leaders: A meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 117, 125-145. Hambrick, D.C. & Mason, P.A. (1984). Upper echelons: The organization as a reflection of its top managers. Academy of Management Review, 9(2), 193-206. Pelled, L. H., Eisenhardt, K. M., & Xin, K. (1999). Exploring the black box: An analysis of work group diversity, conflict, and performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44, 1–28. Powell, G.N. (1990). One more time: Do female and male managers differ? Academy of Management Executive, 4, 68-75. Prasad, P. (2005). Crafting Qualitative Research: Working in the Post-Positivist Tradition, New York: M.E. Sharpe Inc. Tjafel, H. (1982). Social psychology of intergroup relations. Annual Review of Psychology, 33, 1-39. Turner, J.C. (1987). Rediscovering the Social Group: a Self-categorization Theory. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. West, C., & Zimmerman, D. (1987). Doing Gender, Gender and Society, 1, 125-151. Williams K. Y., O Reilly A.C., (1998). Demography and diversity in organizations: a review ‟ of 40 years of research. Research in Organizational Behavior, (20), 77–140
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This presentation was part of the leadership theories course within the management program at bachelors level.

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