Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Upcoming SlideShare
What to Upload to SlideShare
What to Upload to SlideShare
Loading in …3
×
1 of 35

Intracell accumulation final

10

Share

Download to read offline

intracellular accumulation in pathophysiology

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Related Audiobooks

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Intracell accumulation final

  1. 1. PRESENTATIONON: Intracellular Accumulation Presented by: Mohammad Muztaba Asst. Professor(Jr.) Department of Pharmacology Bhavdiya institute sibar sohawal Ayodhya
  2. 2. Intracellular accumulations • Manifestation of metabolic derangement • Accumulation may be transient & reversible or permanent. Effects: range from harmless to toxic • Three categories
  3. 3. Accumulations of Constituents of Normal Cell metabolism Accumulations of Abnormal substances of abnormal Cell metabolism Accumulations of pigments Fats Proteins Carbohydrates Storage diseases Inborn errors of metabolism Endogenous pigments Exogenous pigments ACCUMULATIONS
  4. 4. Intracellular accumulations 4 different intracellular accumulations Lipids Steatosis Cholesterol and CholesterolEsters Proteins Glycogen Pigments
  5. 5. FATTY CHANGE (Steatosis) • Fatty metamorphosis • Intracellular accumulation of neutral fat(triglycerides) within the parenchymal cells. • Common in liver • Can occur in heart, skeletal muscle and kidneys.
  6. 6. • Causes of fatty liver • - ALCHOL ABUSE (alcohol dependence) • - DIABETES MELLITUS • OBESITY (Obesity is a condition in which a person has excess body fat) • - PROTIEN MALNUTRION (starvation suffering or death caused by lack of food.) • -DRUGS/TOXINS • -ANOXIA • -PREGNANCY
  7. 7. Excessive entry of lipids into the liver Enhanced fatty acid synthesis by hepatocytes Decreased oxidation of fatty acids by mitochondria Increased esterification of fatty acids to triglycerides Decreased apoprotein synthesis Impaired lipoprotein excretion
  8. 8. an example of fatty liver -smooth surface: important distinction from other liver diseases where livers develop irregular surfaces - cut surface is shiny: greasy and yellow
  9. 9. Other Lipid Accumulations • Cholesterol and cholesterol esters – In atherosclerosis, cholesterol accumulates in smooth muscle cells and macrophages in the intima of arteries – In hereditary hyperlipemia, cholesterol accumulates in macrophages, usually under the skin, forming tumor-like structures known as xanthomas
  10. 10. Intracellular Lipid Accumulation Cholesterol and cholesterol esters Atherosclerosis Xanthomas Cholesterolosis common causes of many diseases less common lipid storage disease 1. Xanthomas: Cluster of foam cells in subepithelial connective tissues of skin & in tendons producing tumorous masses. 2. Atherosclerosis: Smooth muscles cells & macrophages filled with cholesterol & cholesterol ester forming foam cells within intimae layer of Accumulations of foam cells Like cholesterol
  11. 11. Xanthoma lipid ccumulation in the dermis knobby appearance--> clue that the patient may have defect in lipid metabolism
  12. 12. Cholesterolosisciliated epithelium accumulation of lipid in gall bladder submucosa --may be an indicator of other underlying diseases
  13. 13. Intracellular Protein Accumulations Defective intracellular transport and secretion Excessive amounts of normal proteins (Multiple myeloma -Russell Bodies) accumulation of mucin (Cystic fibrosis) proliferation of plasma cells, causing accumulation of immunoglobin Defect in proteinfolding; - defect in intracellular transport & secretion - ER stress induced by unfolded & missfolded protein accumulation in ER - aggregation of abnormal or missfolded proteins in tissues
  14. 14. Morphology:Round eosinophilic droplets, vacuoles or aggregates in cytoplasm. May be amorphous or crystaline. • Example : amyloidosis
  15. 15. Excessive normal proteins (Russell bodies) PathGuy normal plasma cell Russell body
  16. 16. Defective intracellular transport and secretion (Cystic fibrosis) trachea thick tenacious mucus in airway
  17. 17. Intra cellular accumulations GLYCOGEN Abnormal metabolism of glucose or glycogen result in excessive intracellular accumulation of glycogen Example… uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (main example of abnormal glucose metabolism
  18. 18. Intra cellular accumulations Pigments
  19. 19. DEFINITION • Pigments are coloured substances, some of which are normal constituents of cells (e.g., melanin), whereas others are abnormal and accumulate in cells only under special circumstances • Pigments can be exogenous, coming from outside the body, • or endogenous, synthesized within the body itself.
  20. 20. A. ENDOGENOUS PIGMENTS B. EXOGENOUS PIGMENTS 1.Inhaled pigments 3.Injected pigments 1. Melanin 2. Melanin-like pigment a. Alkaptonuria b. Dubin-Johnson syndrome 3. Haemoprotein-derived pigments a. Haemosiderin b. Acid haematin (Haemozoin) c. Bilirubin d. Porphyrins 4. Lipofuscin (Wear and tear pigment)
  21. 21. Exogenous pigments Exogenous pigments are the pigments introduced into the body from outside such as by inhalation, ingestion or inoculation.
  22. 22. • Exogenous pigments Carbon (anthracosis accumulation of carbon in the lungs ) Coal dust (pneumoconiosis) Lung: pick up by alveolar macrophages regional lymph nods blackening the tissues of the lungs (anthracosis)
  23. 23. Here is anthracotic pigment in macrophages in a hilar lymph node The black streaks seen between lobules of lung beneath the pleural surface are due to accumulation of anthracotic pigment.
  24. 24. Injected Pigments (Tattooing) Pigments like India ink, cinnabar and carbon are introduced into the dermis in the process of tattooing where the pigment is taken up by macrophages and lies permanently in the connective tissue. The examples of injected pigments are Prolonged use of ointments containing mercury, and tattooing by pricking the skin with dyes.
  25. 25. Lipofuschin • fine yellow-brown pigment granules composed of lipid-containing residues of liposomal digestion. • found in the liver, kidney, heart muscle, retina, adrenals, nerve cells, and ganglion cells
  26. 26. Melanin The pigment that gives human skin, hair, and eyes their color. Melanin is produced by cells called melanocytes. Melanin is group of natural pigments found in most organisms. Melanin is produced through a multistage chemical process known as melanogenesis, where the oxidation of the amino acid tyrosine, is followed by polymerization
  27. 27. DISORDERS OF MELANIN PIGMENTATION HYPER PIGMENTATION HYPO PIGMENTATION
  28. 28. HYPER PIGMENTATION GENERALISED 1. 1. Addisons disease 2. 2. Chloasma LOCALISED Peutz jeghers Syndrome Melanosis coli
  29. 29. HYPO PIGMENTATION GENERALISED Albinism LOCALISED Vitiligo
  30. 30. Hemosiderin • Hemoglobin-derived, golden yellow-to- brown, granular or crystalline pigment • Major storage forms of iron • Hemosiderin or haemosiderin is an iron- storage complex. It is only found within cells (as opposed to circulating in blood) and appears to be a complex of ferritin,(Ferritin is a universal intracellular protein that stores iron ) denatured ferritin and other material. The iron within deposits of hemosiderin is very poorly available to supply iron when needed. Excess of iron
  31. 31. Iron pigment appears as a coarse, golden, granular pigment lying within the cell's cytoplasm

×