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Homeostasis

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maintain body fluids

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Homeostasis

  1. 1. 1/30/2019 Muztaba khan 1 PRESENTATIONON: Homeostasis Presented by: Mohammad Muztaba Asst. Professor(Jr.) Department of Pharmacology Bhavdiya institute sibar sohawal Ayodhya
  2. 2. Homeostasis • Homeostasis was defined by Claude Bernard and later by Walter Bradford Cannon in 1926,1929 and 1932. • Homeostasis is a key concept in understanding how our body works. 'homeo,' meaning 'similar,' and 'stasis,' meaning 'stable. • Homeostasis is the maintenance of a constant internal environment [body fluids (tissue fluid & blood) 1/30/2019 2Muztaba khan
  3. 3. • It is the cycle of events in which the status of the body condition is monitored, evaluated, changed, remonitored and re-evaluated. • Each monitored variable, such as blood pressure, blood temperature and blood glucose, is called controlled condition. • Anydisruptions that changethe controlled condition is called stimulus. FEEDBACKSYSTEMS 1/30/2019 3Muztaba khan
  4. 4. COMPONENTSOFFEEDBACK SYSTEMS It consists of threecomponents: • Receptor • Controlcentre • Effector Receptor: • It is the body structure that monitors the controlled condition and sent input tothe control centre. • Theinput is in the form of nerve impulses and chemical signals.1/30/2019 4Muztaba khan
  5. 5. Controlcentre: • It sets the range of values within which a controlled condition should be maintained, evaluates the input it receives from the receptors, and sent output when everneeded. • Output isin the form of nerve impulses, hormones, etc. Effector: • It is a body structure which receives the output from the control centre and produceseffect that changesthe controlled condition. • Nearly every organor tissuein the body canactaseffectors. 1/30/2019 5Muztaba khan
  6. 6. Chapter 12 Homeostasis Homeostasis (Concept Map) 1/30/2019 6Muztaba khan
  7. 7. HOMEOSTASIS The maintenance of a constant internal environment 1/30/2019 7Muztaba khan
  8. 8. Principles of Homeostasis HOMEOSTASIS The maintenance of a constant internal environment 1/30/2019 8Muztaba khan
  9. 9. Principles of Homeostasis Stimulus Change in internal environment HOMEOSTASIS The maintenance of a constant internal environment 1/30/2019 9Muztaba khan
  10. 10. Principles of Homeostasis Stimulus Change in internal environment HOMEOSTASIS The maintenance of a constant internal environment Receptors Detect the change 1/30/2019 10Muztaba khan
  11. 11. Principles of Homeostasis Stimulus Change in internal environment HOMEOSTASIS The maintenance of a constant internal environment Receptors Detect the change Self-corrective Mechanism To rectify the change 1/30/2019 11Muztaba khan
  12. 12. Principles of Homeostasis Stimulus Change in internal environment HOMEOSTASIS The maintenance of a constant internal environment Receptors Detect the change Self-corrective Mechanism To rectify the change Examples Regulation of blood glucose concentration 1/30/2019 12Muztaba khan
  13. 13. Principles of Homeostasis Stimulus Change in internal environment HOMEOSTASIS The maintenance of a constant internal environment Receptors Detect the change Self-corrective Mechanism To rectify the change Examples Regulation of blood glucose concentration Regulation of blood water potential 1/30/2019 13Muztaba khan
  14. 14. Principles of Homeostasis Stimulus Change in internal environment HOMEOSTASIS The maintenance of a constant internal environment Receptors Detect the change Self-corrective Mechanism To rectify the change Examples Regulation of blood glucose concentration Regulation of blood water potential Regulation of body temperature 1/30/2019 14Muztaba khan
  15. 15. Principles of Homeostasis Stimulus Receptors Self-corrective Mechanism Negative Feedback Change in internal environment Detect the change Regulation of blood glucose concentration Examples To rectify the change Regulation of blood water potential Regulation of body temperature The reverse effect of the change HOMEOSTASIS The maintenance of a constant internal environment 1/30/2019 15Muztaba khan
  16. 16. TYPESOFFEEDBACKSYSTEMS POSITIVEFEEDBACK • It reverses achangein controlledcondition. Eg. What Happens When Glucose Concentration Falls? NEGATIVEFEEDBACK • It strengthens or reinforces theinput. Eg. Regulating Body Temperature - on a Hot Day 1/30/2019 16Muztaba khan
  17. 17. Stimulus Blood glucose concentration falls below normal levels What Happens When Glucose Concentration Falls? 1/30/2019 17Muztaba khan
  18. 18. Stimulus Blood glucose concentration falls below normal levels Receptor Islets of Langerhans in pancreas stimulated pancreas What Happens When Glucose Concentration Falls? 1/30/2019 18Muztaba khan
  19. 19. pancreas liver Corrective Mechanism Islets of Langerhans secretes more glucagon, which is transported by blood to liver and muscles Stimulus Blood glucose concentration falls below normal levels Receptor Islets of Langerhans in pancreas stimulated What Happens When Glucose Concentration Falls? 1/30/2019 19Muztaba khan
  20. 20. Stimulus Blood glucose concentration falls below normal levels liver glycogen  glucose Receptor Islets of Langerhans in pancreas stimulated What Happens When Glucose Concentration Falls? Corrective Mechanism Islets of Langerhans secretes more glucagon, which is transported by blood to liver and muscles Glucagon converts stored glycogen back to glucose. From liver, glucose enters bloodstreampancreas 1/30/2019 20Muztaba khan
  21. 21. Stimulus Blood glucose concentration falls below normal levels liver glycogen  glucose Receptor Islets of Langerhans in pancreas stimulated Blood glucose concentration rises and glucagon production decreases What Happens When Glucose Concentration Falls? Corrective Mechanism Islets of Langerhans secretes more glucagon, which is transported by blood to liver and muscles Glucagon converts stored glycogen back to glucose. From liver, glucose enters bloodstreampancreas 1/30/2019 21Muztaba khan
  22. 22. Stimulus Blood glucose concentration falls below normal levels liver glycogen  glucose Receptor Islets of Langerhans in pancreas stimulated Blood glucose concentration rises and glucagon production decreases Blood glucose concentration returns to normal What Happens When Glucose Concentration Falls? Corrective Mechanism Islets of Langerhans secretes more glucagon, which is transported by blood to liver and muscles Glucagon converts stored glycogen back to glucose. From liver, glucose enters bloodstreampancreas 1/30/2019 22Muztaba khan
  23. 23. liver Receptor Islets of Langerhans in pancreas stimulated Positive feedback Stimulus Blood glucose concentration falls below normal levels Blood glucose concentration returns to normal What Happens When Glucose Concentration Falls? Blood glucose concentration rises and glucagon production decreases glycogen  glucose Corrective Mechanism Islets of Langerhans secretes more glucagon, which is transported by blood to liver and muscles Glucagon converts stored glycogen back to glucose. From liver, glucose enters bloodstreampancreas 1/30/2019 23Muztaba khan
  24. 24. Chapter 1 Homeostasis Regulating Body Temperature - on a Hot Day Positive feed back 1/30/2019 24Muztaba khan
  25. 25. Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures rise Regulating Body Temperature - on a Hot Day 1/30/2019 25Muztaba khan
  26. 26. Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures rise Receptor Temperature receptors detect changes and send nerve impulses to the brain Regulating Body Temperature - on a Hot Day 1/30/2019 26Muztaba khan
  27. 27. Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures rise hair follicle hair arteriole blood capillaries erector muscle Receptor Temperature receptors detect changes and send nerve impulses to the brain Hypothalamus of brain is stimulated and sends nerve impulses to relevant body parts Regulating Body Temperature - on a Hot Day 1/30/2019 27Muztaba khan
  28. 28. Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures rise Receptor Temperature receptors detect changes and send nerve impulses to the brain Hypothalamus of brain is stimulated and sends nerve impulses to relevant body parts capillariesskin surface Arterioles in skin dilate 1 More blood flows to capillaries in skin arteriole 2 3 4 Greater heat loss Shunt vessels constrict Regulating Body Temperature - on a Hot Day 1/30/2019 28Muztaba khan
  29. 29. Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures rise Hypothalamus of brain is stimulated and sends nerve impulses to relevant body parts sweat duct sweat pore sweat gland Sweat glands more active Sweat production increases More latent heat lost as sweat evaporates 6 7 5 Regulating Body Temperature - on a Hot Day Receptor Temperature receptors detect changes and send nerve impulses to the brain 1/30/2019 29Muztaba khan
  30. 30. Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures rise Hair erector muscles in skin relax erector muscle hair follicle hair arteriole blood capillaries 8 Receptor Temperature receptors detect changes and send nerve impulses to the brain Hypothalamus of brain is stimulated and sends nerve impulses to relevant body parts Regulating Body Temperature - on a Hot Day 1/30/2019 30Muztaba khan
  31. 31. Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures rise Receptor Temperature receptors detect changes and send nerve impulses to the brain Hypothalamus of brain is stimulated and sends nerve impulses to relevant body parts Corrective Mechanism Increase in heat loss and decrease in heat production Regulating Body Temperature - on a Hot Day 1/30/2019 31Muztaba khan
  32. 32. Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures rise Receptor Temperature receptors detect changes and send nerve impulses to the brain Hypothalamus of brain is stimulated and sends nerve impulses to relevant body parts Corrective Mechanism Increase in heat loss and decrease in heat production Decreased metabolic rate reduces heat production Regulating Body Temperature - on a Hot Day 1/30/2019 32Muztaba khan
  33. 33. Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures rise Receptor Temperature receptors detect changes and send nerve impulses to the brain Hypothalamus of brain is stimulated and sends nerve impulses to relevant body parts Corrective Mechanism Increase in heat loss and decrease in heat production Blood temperature returns to normal levels Decreased metabolic rate reduces heat production Regulating Body Temperature - on a Hot Day 1/30/2019 33Muztaba khan
  34. 34. Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures rise Receptor Temperature receptors detect changes and send nerve impulses to the brain Hypothalamus of brain is stimulated and sends nerve impulses to relevant body parts Corrective Mechanism Increase in heat loss and decrease in heat production Blood temperature returns to normal levels Negative feedback Decreased metabolic rate reduces heat production Regulating Body Temperature - on a Hot Day 1/30/2019 34Muztaba khan
  35. 35. Any question….? 1/30/2019 35Muztaba khan

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