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Waste management in pharmaceutical industry
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pharmaceutical waste treatment and disposal procedure

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pharmaceutical waste treatment and disposal procedure

  1. 1. Pharmaceutical Waste Treatment and Disposal Practices Solid- liquid waste disposal in herbal companies
  2. 2. PRESENTATION OUTLINES  Introduction  Types of Waste  Problems Involved in Pharmaceutical waste Treatment  Treatment Methods  Case Studies  Conclusions
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  Origin Of Pharmaceutical Waste.  Quantity Generated
  4. 4. ORIGIN OF PHARMACEUTICAL WASTE WATER (PWW)  Spent liquors from fermentation processes (e.g. antibiotics, vitamins)  Chemical waste eg. xenobiotics  Condenser waste from evaporation  Floor and laboratory washing waste
  5. 5. QUANTITIES GENERATED  In Ireland about 43 tons of BOD produced per day from Pharmaceutical Industry.  In USA during 1983, about 3 million tons of hazardous waste produced in which 200,000 tons of sludge produced by pharmaceutical industry only.  In India out of 960 million tons of solid waste, about 2 million tons comes fro herbal and agricultural industry.
  6. 6. Types of Waste  Halogenated/non-halogenated solvents  Organic chemical residues from still bottom  Sludge & tars  Heavy metals  Test animal remains  Return pharmaceuticals  Low-level radioactive waste  Contaminated filters, etc.
  7. 7. PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN PHARMACEUTICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT  Diverse characteristics of PWW. Different medicines produce different type of waste  Variable amount of products  Mixing of pharmaceutical waste with other type of waste  Also, it may contain high BOD and highly variable pH
  8. 8. Treatment Methods  Physical Treatment  Chemical Treatment  Thermal Treatment  Biological Treatment
  9. 9. Physical treatment 1. Reverse osmosis (RO):  Based on pressure application  Removal of dissolved solids  Depends on concentration and pH  Reverse osmosis is a process that industry uses to clean water, whether for industrial process applications or to convert brackish water, to clean up wastewater or to recover salts from industrial processes.
  10. 10.  In the reverse osmosis process cellophane-like membranes separate purified water from contaminated water.  RO is when a pressure is applied to the concentrated side of the membrane forcing purified water into the dilute side, the rejected impurities from the concentrated side being washed away in the reject water.  RO can also act as an ultra-filter removing particles such as some micro-organisms that may be too large to pass through the pores of the membrane  Common membrane materials include polyamide thin film composites (TFC), cellulose acetate (CA) and cellulose triacetate (CTA) with the membrane material being spiral wound around a tube, or hollow fibres bundled together
  11. 11. 2. Dialysis:  Based on the chemical activity of the solute  Recovery of specific material from aqueous solution  depends on the molecular weigh and dialysis coefficient
  12. 12.  Electrodialysis:  Based on application of an electric field  Used to separate ionized species  Operates over a wide range of pH  Electrodialysis Membrane System works to achieve separation on the ionic components of the water through the use of semi permeable membranes.  The membranes are alternately stacked together and each of it is either anionic or cationic charged so that the cation exchange membrane will attract the anions leaving only cations to pass through and vice versa for anion membranes.  The principal behind the operation relies on the use of electrical driving force whereby two different electrodes will cause electric current to pass through the solution and thus creating freshwater at the receiving end.
  13. 13.  This technique can be applied to remove ions from water. Particles that do not carry an electrical charge are not removed.  Cation-selective membranes consist of sulphonated polystyrene, while anion-selective membranes consist of polystyrene with quaternary ammonia.  Sometimes pre-treatment is necessary before the electro dialysis can take place. Suspended solids with a diameter that exceeds 10 µm need to be removed, or else they will plug the membrane pores.  There are also substances that are able to neutralize a membrane, such as large organic anions, colloids, iron oxides and manganese oxide. These disturb the selective effect of the membrane.
  14. 14.  Evaporation/Redistillation  Based on heat energy  Recovery of solvents  Produces high quality effluent  High cost
  15. 15.  Granular Activated Carbon Adsorption:  Used for removal of organic contaminants (COD)  Survey showed that 1 out of 25 pharmaceutical plants use this method to treat their wastewater,  COD test - nearly all organic compounds can be fully oxidized to carbon dioxide with a strong oxidizing agent under acidic conditions
  16. 16. Physical treatment…  Filtration:  Used to remove particulate contaminants  Colloidal suspensions of fine solids may be removed by filtration through fine physical barriers distinguished from coarser screens or sieves by the ability to remove particles smaller than the openings through which the water passes.
  17. 17. Sedimentation:  Suspended particles are allowed to settle and supernatant removed.  Solids and non-polar liquids may be removed from wastewater by gravity when density differences are sufficient to overcome dispersion by turbulence.  Gravity separation of solids is the primary treatment of sewage, where the unit process is called "primary settling tanks" or "primary sedimentation tanks".  It is also widely used for the treatment of other wastewaters. Solids that are heavier than water will accumulate at the bottom of quiescent settling basins.
  18. 18. Flocculation:  Gathering of fine particles as flocculates which allows them to settle.  is a process wherein colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flake; either spontaneously or due to the addition of a clarifying agent.  The action differs from precipitation in that, prior to flocculation, colloids are merely suspended in a liquid and not actually dissolved in a solution  In the flocculated system, there is no formation of a cake, since all the flocs are in the suspension.
  19. 19.  Difference in relative volatility between the organic chemicals and water are used to achieve a separation  Used for recovery of solvents (1 out of 4 pharmaceutical plants and Wastewater treatment 17 out of 91 pharmaceutical plants)  Steam stripping, also known as steam distillation, is an economic method of cleaning up plant wastewater streams.  It is a multistage continuous distillation process where steam is used as a stripping gas to remove hydrocarbons from dischargeable waste waters; Stream Strippig :
  20. 20. Chemical Treatment  Ion-exchange:  Reversible interchange of ions between a solid and a liquid phase  Used for the removal of trace metals, fluorides, nitrates, and manganese  Ion exchange is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex.  In most cases the term is used to denote the processes of purification, separation, and decontamination of aqueous and other ion- containing solutions with solid polymeric or mineralic 'ion exchangers'.
  21. 21. Neutralization:  A process utilised to prevent excessively acidic or alkaline wastes discharge  1 out of 2 pharmaceutical plants use neutralization to treat their wastewater
  22. 22.  Reduction: Treatment with sulphur dioxide to reduce the oxidants to less noxious materials  Precipitin: Separation of solid from aqueous waste chemically  Calcination: Heating of waste to a high temperature to oxidize organic matter
  23. 23. Thermal Treatment Incineration:  Controlled heating processes to covert a waste to less bulky, less toxic or less noxious  Incineration usually involves the combustion of unprepared (raw or residual)  To allow the combustion to take place a sufficient quantity of oxygen is required to fully oxidize the fuel. Typically, incineration plant combustion (flame) temperatures are in excess of 850ºC and the waste is converted into carbon dioxide and water.  Any non-combustible materials (e.g. metals, glass) remain as a solid, known as Bottom Ash, that contains a small amount of residual carbon.
  24. 24. Pyrolysis:  Thermal decomposition of waste at high temperature in the absence of oxygen  Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of a substance in the absence of oxygen.  This process requires an external heat source to maintain the temperature required. Typically, relatively low temperatures of between 300ºC to 850ºC are used during pyrolysis of materials such as MSW.  The products produced from pyrolysing materials are a solid residue and a synthetic gas (syngas).  The solid residue (sometimes described as a char) is a combination of non-combustible materials and carbon.
  25. 25.  The syngas is a mixture of gases (combustible constituents include carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane and a broad range of other VOCs).  A proportion of these can be condensed to produce oils, waxes and tars.  The syngas typically has a net calorific value (NCV) of between 10 and 20 MJ/Nm3. If required, the condensable fraction can be collected by cooling the syngas, potentially for use as a liquid fuel
  26. 26. Biological Treatment  Used to remove biodegradable organic matter  Microorganisms converts organics into:  CO2 and H2O (aerobic)  CO2, CH4, and H2O (anaerobic)  1 out of 3 pharmaceutical plants use biological processes
  27. 27. Biological Processes  Activated sludge:  process in which microorganisms are continuously circulated and contacted with organic waste in the presence of oxygen  Sludge withdrawn from the secondary clarifier in the activated sludge process, consisting of micro-organisms, non-living organic matter, and inorganic materials.
  28. 28.  an activated sludge process includes:  An aeration tank where air (or oxygen) is injected and thoroughly mixed into the wastewater.  A settling tank (usually referred to as a clarifier or "settler") to allow the waste sludge to settle. Part of the waste sludge is recycled to the aeration tank and the remaining waste sludge is removed for further treatment and ultimate disposal
  29. 29. Activated Sludge Process •A common method of disposing of pollutants in wastewaters. •In the process, large quantities of air are bubbled through wastewaters that contain dissolved organic substances in open aeration tanks. Bacteria and other types of microorganisms present in the system need oxygen to live, grown, and multiply in order to consume the dissolved organic "food" or pollutants in the waste. •After several hours in a large holding tank, the water is separated from the sludge of bacteria and discharged from the system. •Most of the activated sludge is returned to the treatment process, while the remainder is disposed of by one of several acceptable methods.
  30. 30. Aerated lagoons:  a basin in which organic waste stabilised by a dispersed biological growth in the presence of oxygen  promotes the biological oxidation of waste waters.
  31. 31. Types of aerated lagoons or basins  Suspension mixed lagoons, where there is less energy provided by the aeration equipment to keep the sludge in suspension.  Facultative lagoons, where there is insufficient energy provided by the aeration equipment to keep the sludge in suspension and solids settle to the lagoon floor. The biodegradable solids in the settled sludge then degrade anaerobically
  32. 32.  large shallow basins store wastewater and purify under natural conditions in the presence of algae  Waste or Wastewater Stabilization Ponds (WSPs) are large, man-made water bodies in which blackwater, greywater or faecal sludge are treated by natural occurring processes and the influence of solar light, wind, microorganisms and algae.  The ponds can be used individually, or linked in a series for improved treatment. There are three types of ponds, (1) anaerobic, (2) facultative and (3) aerobic (maturation), each with different treatment and design characteristics.  large surface areas and expert design are required.  The effluent still contains nutrients (e.g. N and P) and is therefore appropriate for the reuse in agriculture , but not for direct recharge in surface waters. Waste stabilisation ponds (Polishing ponds):
  33. 33. Anaerobic digestion  Anaerobic digestion is a collection of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen  Closed tanks operated in the absence of oxygen  In this method large fraction of organic matter is broken down in to carbon dioxide and methane and is accomplished in the absence of oxygen.  About half of the material is then converted to gases while the remainder is dried and becomes residual soil-like matter
  34. 34. Trickling filters  Artificial beds of rocks or other porous media through which aqueous organic waste percolated and brought into contact with biological growth and oxygen  A trickling filter consists of a bed of rocks, gravel, slag, peat moss, or plastic media over which wastewater flows downward and contacts a layer (or film) of microbial slime covering the bed media.  Aerobic conditions are maintained by forced air flowing through the bed or by natural convection of air.  The process involves adsorption of organic compounds in the wastewater by the microbial slime layer, diffusion of air into the slime layer to provide the oxygen required for the biochemical oxidation of the organic compounds.  The end products include carbon dioxide gas, water and other products of the oxidation
  35. 35.  As the slime layer thickens, it becomes difficult for the air to penetrate the layer and an inner anaerobic layer is formed.  The treatment of sewage or other wastewater with trickling filters is among the oldest and most well characterized treatment technologies.
  36. 36. The fundamental components of a complete trickling filter system are:  A bed of filter medium upon which a layer of microbial slime is promoted and developed.  An enclosure or a container which houses the bed of filter medium  A system for distributing the flow of wastewater over the filter medium.  Any system removing and disposing any sludge from the treated effluent
  37. 37. Ranges of values being used in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment by trickling filters Parameter Range Units Flow Rate 0.03 - 2.18 MGD Hydraulic Loading Rate 2.0 - 5.0 gpm/ft2 Depth of Medium 6 - 72 inches
  38. 38. ANAEROBIC TREATMENT  Anaerobic treatment of pharmaceutical waste is common in different countries because of  lack of biodegradability  toxic and  malodorous nature of pharmaceutical waste
  39. 39. Commonly Used Anaerobic Systems  Up flow filters  Membrane reactors  Continuously-stirred reactors  Fluidized bed reactors
  40. 40.  The anaerobic filter is ideally suited for the treatment of soluble wastes.  No effluent or solids recycle is required with the anaerobic filter because biological solids remain in the filter and are not lost with the effluent.  The accumulation of high concentrations active solids in the filter permits the treatment of dilute wastes.  Very low volumes of sludge produce.  Effluent is essentially free of SS.
  41. 41.  Anaerobic filter giving 70 – 80%. COD removal efficiency and 94% BOD5 removal efficiency  It gives 33% better performance as compared to aerobic extended aeration system  Very low volumes of sludge produce  Remove colour with higher efficiency
  42. 42. Waste Disposal
  43. 43. Factors require consideration in the management/disposal of solid pharmaceutical waste  Potential hazardous nature of the waste material  Relatively large volume of material that must be safely and efficiently handled, transported and/or disposed of  Effect of the disposal method on the public and environment  Social factors
  44. 44.  Technical feasibility of the construction and operation of the installation  Environmental control  The social importance of other interests in the exploitation and utilisation of the area  Economics of construction and operation of the installation
  45. 45. Steps for the disposal of solid pharmaceutical waste  Segregation  Volume reduction  Incineration  Ultimate disposal
  46. 46. Treatment or Disposal  There is not much treatment of solid pharmaceutical waste. Most of the time solid waste is disposed of.  Separation and reprocessing of some of the solid waste also done for recycling purpose.  Incineration and landfilling of pharmaceutical solid waste is most common
  47. 47. Methods of Waste Disposal  Landfills  Incineration  Source reduction  Composting  Recycling
  48. 48. LANDFILLS • Landfills are physical facilities used for the disposal of residual solid wastes in the surface soils of the earth • US. EPA defines landfill as a system designed and constructed to contain discarded waste so as to minimize releases of contaminants to the environment  Solid pharmaceutical waste usually incinerated but in some places (e.g. California) most of the solid PW is landfilled
  49. 49.  Landfill disposal:  Common land filling methods are  Mixing with soil  Shallow burial  Combination of these
  50. 50.  Deep-well disposal  Material pumped into subsurface rock separated from other groundwater supplies by impermeable rock or clay. (In USA more than 100 wells are used for disposal)  Land burial disposal  Disposal accomplished by either near-surface or deep burial  In near-surface burial material could be disposed directly into the ground or is disposed in stainless steel tanks or concrete lined pits beneath the ground. At the present time, only near surface burial is used for disposal of pharmaceutical wastes
  51. 51.  Ocean dumping and detonation are some of expensive waste disposal methods • Detonation is a processes of exploding a quantity of waste with sudden violence  Thermal Shock  Mechanical Shock  Electrostatic charge This method mainly used for flammable and volatile waste materials
  52. 52. Sanitary Landfill  Layer of compacted trash covered with a layer of earth once a day and a thicker layer when the site is full  Require impermeable barriers to stop escape of leachates: can cause problem by overflow  Gases produced by decomposing garbage needs venting  Avoid:  Swampy area/ Flood plains /coastal areas  Fractures or porous rocks  High water table  Prefer:  Clay layers  Heads of gullies
  53. 53. Deep-well Disposal
  54. 54. Incineration  combustion of solid waste  Solves space problem but:  produces toxic gases like Cl, HCl, HCN, SO2  High temp furnaces break down hazardous compounds but are expensive  Heat generated can be can be recovered
  55. 55. MAJOR TYPES OF INCINERATORS  Grate Type of Incinerator It is a low temperature incinerator. It is useful for volume reduction of bulky waste.  Hearth-Type Incinerator Most solid hazardous waste is burned in hearth-type systems of which there are several basic types:  The rotary kiln  A "controlled air" or "two chamber fixed hearth" system − The multiple hearth incinerator − The monohearth (seldom used)
  56. 56.  Fludized-Bed Incinerator Liquids, sludges as well as uniformly sized solids can be incinerated in it  In USA hearth-type systems are common  Following types of incinerator are in operation  Rotary Kiln incinerators accounts for 75%  Two-chamber, fixed-hearth 15%  Multiple-hearth and fluidised bed 10%
  57. 57.  Advantages: on average, reduces the volume of solid waste by 80%  Modern high-temperature (up to 3000O F) incineration can decompose many harmful compounds into less hazardous substances  The combustion heat energy can be employed in a “waste-to-energy” facility to generate steam for space heating or electrical energy production (see slide
  58. 58.  Disadvantages: incineration solid residue may contain highly concentrated toxins  Requires separation of noncombustible waste, increasing costs  Typically releases a variety of pollutants to the air (e.g., chlorine gas, acidic vapors, toxic metals, carbon dioxide)  Even the high-temperature incinerators can’t destroy toxic elements (e.g., mercury, arsenic)  The high-temperature incinerators are very expensive to operate (~ $2000 per ton of waste), although the less effective low-temperature incinerators are more cost competitive (~ $75 per ton of waste)
  59. 59. Ocean Dumping  methods – direct dumping or shipboard incineration followed by dumping of ash  Contributes to ocean pollution  Can wash back on beaches, and can cause death of marine mammals  Preferred method: incineration in open sea  Ocean Dumping Ban Act, 1988: bans dumping of sewage sludge and industrial waste  Dredge spoils still dumped in oceans, can cause habitat destruction and export of fluvial pollutants
  60. 60. Source Reduction  Most fundamental method of reducing waste is to prevent it from being produced  Reduce and reuse  Saves natural resources.  Reduces waste toxicity  Reduces costs  Packaging reduction – involves the elimination of unnecessary packaging, the design of packaging that requires less material and the design of manufacturing processes that necessitate less packaging for the products
  61. 61. Composting  Harnessing natural decomposition to transform organic material into compost  Composting is the biological decomposition of organic waste such as food or plant material by bacteria, fungi, worms and other organisms under controlled aerobic (occurring in the presence of oxygen) conditions.  The end result of composting is an accumulation of partially decayed organic matter called humus. Composting with worms, also known as vermiculture, results in nutrient-loaded worm castings
  62. 62. RECYCLING SOLID WASTE  Recycling is a process to convert waste materials into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to plastic production.  Recycling is a key component of modern waste reduction and is the third component of the "Reduce, Reuse and Recycle" waste hierarchy.
  63. 63. Benefits of Recycling  Reduces the amount of waste sent to landfills and incinerators;  Conserves natural resources such as timber, water, and minerals;  Prevents pollution by reducing the need to collect new raw materials;  Saves energy;  Reduces greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global climate change;  Helps sustain the environment for future generations;
  64. 64. Different Steps in Recycling  Collection and Processing  Manufacturing  Purchasing new drugs from recycled materials
  65. 65. Thank You
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