Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Upcoming SlideShare
What to Upload to SlideShare
Download to read offline and view in fullscreen.



Child labor and street children

Download to read offline

short information on child labour and street children, its situation and related approaches to address these issues

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Related Audiobooks

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Child labor and street children

  1. 1. Child labour and street children Swornim Bajracharya Masters in Public Health BPKIHS, Dharan Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  2. 2. Introduction  In today’s world the situation of child labourers and street children has preoccupied the minds of many human rights activists and social issues experts.  Many children work and live on the streets in unsuitable conditions in busy streets, in the cold and heat and pollution, they are human beings and helping them is crucial and necessary as a human rights challenge.  This phenomenon is not exclusive to a particular country, but we see this problem practically across the whole world. Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  3. 3. Introduction  Children who undertake arduous work that they are incapable of doing or dangerous jobs, due to economic and financial needs, with the aim of producing goods or services to receive wages, are considered as child labourers.  Overall, children who have to work on the streets for their survival in big cities, are called street children. The term is usually associated with children who both work and sleep on the streets. Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  4. 4. Child labour-ILO  The term “child labour” is often defined as work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development.  It refers to work that:  is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful to children; and  interferes with their schooling by:  depriving them of the opportunity to attend school;  obliging them to leave school prematurely; or  requiring them to attempt to combine school attendance with excessively long and heavy work. Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  5. 5. Child labour  Not all work done by children should be classified as child labour that is to be targeted for elimination.  Children’s or adolescents’ participation in work that does not affect their health and personal development or interfere with their schooling, is generally regarded as being something positive.  This includes activities such as helping their parents around the home, assisting in a family business or earning pocket money outside school hours and during school holidays.  These kinds of activities contribute to children’s development and to the welfare of their families; they provide them with skills and experience, and help to prepare them to be productive members of society during their adult life. Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  6. 6.  In its most extreme forms, child labour involves children being enslaved, separated from their families, exposed to serious hazards and illnesses and/or left to fend for themselves on the streets of large cities – often at a very early age.  Whether or not particular forms of “work” can be called “child labour” depends on the child’s age, the type and hours of work performed, the conditions under which it is performed and the objectives pursued by individual countries.  The answer varies from country to country, as well as among sectors within countries. Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  7. 7. Minimum Age for Work  The main principles of the ILO’s Convention concerning the minimum age of admission to employment and work are listed below.  Hazardous work Any work which is likely to jeopardize children’s physical, mental or moral heath, safety or morals should not be done by anyone under the age of 18.  Basic Minimum Age The minimum age for work should not be below the age for finishing compulsory schooling, which is generally 15.  Light work Children between the ages of 13 and 15 years old may do light work, as long as it does not threaten their health and safety, or hinder their education or vocational orientation and training. Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  8. 8. Global scenario  Global number of children in child labour has declined by one third since 2000, from 246 million to 168 million children. More than half of them, 85 million, are in hazardous work (down from 171 million in 2000).  Asia and the Pacific still has the largest numbers (almost 78 million or 9.3% of child population), but Sub-Saharan Africa continues to be the region with the highest incidence of child labour (59 million, over 21%).  There are 13 million (8.8%) of children in child labour in Latin America and the Caribbean and in the Middle East and North Africa there are 9.2 million (8.4%).  Child labour among girls fell by 40% since 2000, compared to 25% for boys.Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  9. 9.  The most recent ILO Global Report on child labour Accelerating action against child labour was produced in 2010.  Its estimates were based on data from a range of sources, including national child labour surveys supported by the ILO, the World Bank’s Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) surveys and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) conducted by UNICEF.  The report suggested that: Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  10. 10.  There were about 306 million economically active children aged 5‐17 in 2008 (including older children working legitimately)  of whom 215 million could be regarded as child labourers;  among those child labourers, 115 million were involved in hazardous work – used as a proxy for the worst forms of child labour. Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  11. 11.  Corresponding figures for the narrower age group of 5‐14 year olds, i.e. the target group for basic education at primary and lower secondary level are:  176 million economically active children; • 153 million child labourers;  53 million children in hazardous work. In absolute numbers Asia and the Pacific account for more than 96 million of the number of economically active children in the 5‐14 age range, an activity rate of 14.8%. Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  12. 12.  Sub‐Saharan Africa accounts for 58 million of the economically active children aged 5‐14, an activity rate of 28.4%. In comparison to the previous estimates of 2004, this number has increased by 9 million.  Most child labour can be found in agriculture (60%), while 25.6 % of all children work in services and 7.0% work in industry; another 7.5% work in not defined sectors Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  13. 13. In Nepal  The incidence of child labour in Nepal is relatively high compared with other countries in South Asia.  According to data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and other national surveys, Nepal has 34% of its children between the age of 5 and 14 who are involved in child labour, compared with 12% in the South Asia region as a whole.  Out of 9.2 million children, 2.6 million children of age 5-14 years work as child workers Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  14. 14.  There are more female than male child labourers, and the situation is worse in rural than urban areas.  In 2010, 44% of children age 5 to 14 were involved in child labour activities in the mid- and far-western regions of Nepal.  According to the Nepal Labour Force Survey (NLFS) in 2008, 86.2% of children who were working were also studying and 13.8% of the children work only. Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  15. 15.  621,000 children are estimated to be engaged in hazardous work  In Kathmandu valley, estimated 11-13000 girls and women are working in “night entertainment industry”, of which a many are forced to engage in sexual activities and are vulnerable to trafficking. Nearly half of all entered the area before age of 18. Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  16. 16. Forms of child Labour Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  17. 17. Forms of child labour in Nepal  Agriculture  Industrial  Mines and kilns  Informal sector  Construction work  Plantation  Domestic service  Other Worst Forms of Child Labour Bonded Labour, Child Sex Trade, Trafficked children Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  18. 18. Causes of child labour Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  19. 19. Causes of child labour  PRIMARY CAUSES:  International Labour Organization (ILO) suggests poverty is the greatest single cause behind child labour.  For impoverished households, income from a child's work is usually crucial for his or her own survival or for that of the household.  Income from working children, even if small, may be between 25 to 40% of these household income. Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  20. 20. Causes of labour  Low Aspiration: It is important for parents and children to understand that they can work hard and make something great of themselves. Low aspirations by parents and children is a major cause of child labour because in such a situation, being employed in a local factory, or selling grocery in the streets is the normal way of life.  Huge demand of unskilled labour  Illiteracy  Early marriage  High cost of education Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  21. 21. International laws and conventions  The convention on rights of children 1989  ILO minimum age for employment convention 138  ILO worst forms of child labour convention no.182 Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  22. 22. Worst form of child labour  Child labour takes many different forms, a priority is to eliminate without delay the worst forms of child labour as defined by: Article 3 of ILO Convention No. 182:  (a) all forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery, such as the sale and trafficking of children, debt bondage and serfdom and forced or compulsory labour, including forced or compulsory recruitment of children for use in armed conflict;  (b) the use, procuring or offering of a child for prostitution, for the production of pornography or for pornographic performances; Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  23. 23.  (c) the use, procuring or offering of a child for illicit activities, in particular for the production and trafficking of drugs as defined in the relevant international treaties;  (d) work which, by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out, is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children." Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  24. 24. Hazardous work  An ILO Recommendation (No. 190, paragraph 3), which accompanies Convention No. 182, provides a list of elements that should be considered when determining what constitutes hazardous work:  work which exposes children to physical, psychological or sexual abuse;  work underground, under water, at dangerous heights or in confined spaces;  work with dangerous machinery, equipment and tools, or which involves the manual handling or transport of heavy loads; Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  25. 25.  work in an unhealthy environment which may, for example, expose children to hazardous substances, agents or processes, or to temperatures, noise levels, or vibrations damaging to their health;  work under particularly difficult conditions such as work for long hours or during the night or work where the child is unreasonably confined to the premises of the employer. Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  26. 26. National legislation and legal framework  Children’s ACT 1992: Child is defined as age of 16 years. It protects the rights and interest of children and their physical, mental and intellectual development and prohibits a child below 14 years to engage in any kind of labour work  Child labour Act 2002: regulated hrs of wok for 14-16 and prohibits employment of children younger than 16 years of age into hazardous work. It also states that no child can be engaged in work against his/her will or else will be liable to punishment of one yr in maximum or fine of fifty thousand rupees Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  27. 27.  Kamaiya labour act 2002: The act prohibits child labour, makes provision for freeing bonded labourers and cancelling debt flowing from such arrangements. Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  28. 28. Structures at regional, district and community level  10 labour offices  Women and children offices in 75 districts  District child welfare boards in 75 districts  Juvenile benches in 30 districts  Formation of child protection committees in 1051 VDCS  Promotion of child helpline no.1098 and toll free no. 104 Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  29. 29.  The Government of Nepal has expressed its firm commitment to combat both general and worst forms of child labor, which is now being reflected in national policies and programmes.  Government of Nepal is currently implementing a National Master Plan on Child Labor, which aims at eliminating all forms of child labor by 2014 Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  30. 30. Consequences  Loss of Quality childhood  Health issues  Mental trauma  Illiteracy Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  31. 31. Challenges Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  32. 32. Challenges  Lack of Awareness on Child Labour  Lack of Laws and Regulations and their implementation  Lack of Political Commitment and Will  Lack of Integrated and Coordinated Actions  Lack of Sustainable Programmes and Resources  Lack of Follow-up, Monitoring and Evaluation Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  33. 33. Street children Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  34. 34. Street Children  Street children is a term for children experiencing poverty (homelessness) who are living on the streets of a city and selling their body to survive.  Street kids and street youth; the definition of street children is contested, but many practitioners and policymakers use UNICEF’s concept of boys and girls, aged under 18 years, for whom "the street" (including unoccupied dwellings and wasteland) has become home and/or their source of livelihood, and who are inadequately protected or supervised Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  35. 35.  Street children are minors who live and survive on the streets. They often grow up in public landfills, train stations, our under the bridges of the world’s major cities.  Because of conflicts with their family, these children don’t want to or can’t return home. Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  36. 36.  There are two groups of street children.  The first group is ‘Children of the street’, which refers to children who are homeless, and streets in urban areas are their source of livelihood, where they sleep and live.  The second group is ‘Children on the street’, who work and live on the streets in the daytime but return back home at night where they sleep, although some of them sleep occasionally on the streets (UNCHS, 2000). Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  37. 37.  Nevertheless, there is no clear distinction between the two groups as they often differ from their common definition:  some ‘children of the street’ may still have links with their families and some ‘children on the street’ often sleep on the street (UNICEF, 2001). Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  38. 38. Scenario  There are estimated to be around 120 million children living on the streets in the world (30 million in Africa, 30 million in Asia, and 60 million in South America)  According to UN sources there are up to 150 million street children in the world today.  Chased from home by violence, drug and alcohol abuse, the death of a parent, family breakdown, war, natural disaster or simply socio-economic collapse, many destitute children are forced to eke out a living on the streets, scavenging, begging, hawking in the slums and polluted cities of the developing worldSwornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  39. 39.  Various categories of street children exist. There are those who work on the streets as their only means of getting money, those who take refuge on the streets during the day but return to some form of family at night and those who permanently live on the street without a family network.  All are at risk from abuse, exploitation and vigilante or police violence, but the most vulnerable are those who actually sleep and live on the streets, hiding under bridges, in gutters, in railway stations. Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  40. 40. In Nepal  Children aged below 16 years constitute 41% of Nepal’s population.  While on the street they face problems of hunger, shelter, clothes, etc. Similarly, face problems from police, “dada” (bullies), gang etc. With all these problems and tensions, they lead their complex life  15% of the children in a street situation are from the eastern Terai district of Sunsari.  There are around 5000 street children all over Nepal. In Kathmandu only, it is estimated that the number of street children is approximately 1200-1500 Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  41. 41.  Children as young as 9 are smoking ganja: 35% of 13 year old and 60% of street youth regularly smoke ganja.  Street children from the age of 6 are regularly sniffing glue.  The critical ages for many street children to use glue seem to be between 9 and 13. It is here that 25-35% of the children have not tried sniffing glue.  Less than 25% of street children 13 years old or less stated they have had sexual relationship with penetration compared to over 50% of those 14 and older Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  42. 42. Causes Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  43. 43. Causes  There are two main causes of the phenomenon of street children.  The first is the economic stress and poor conditions that families face due to industrialization and urbanization.  The second cause is changes in the traditional family structure, especially when women became the main contributor to households’ economies (Patel, 1990; Le Roux and Smith, 1998; Lugalla and Mbwambo, 1999). Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  44. 44.  Nevertheless, poverty cannot stand alone as the only reason behind the phenomenon of street children, as a comparative research conducted on street children and working children in Brazil shows that the per capital household income of families of street children is higher than that of working children’s families (Rizzini et al., 1994). Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  45. 45. Reasons they are on street  To earn money for themselves and support their families.  To find shelter.  To escape from family problems including rejection.  To escape from work demands in the home.  To escape from a children’s institution. Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  46. 46. Statistics about the sexual abuse of street children:  75% of street children in Kathmandu are victims of sexual abuse at the hands of foreigners, locals and their peers. Here are some worrying and disturbing figures. Main reasons for migrating to street:  41.1% Family violence  27.1% Peer influence  19.6% Family economic situation 15.9 Family disintegration  0.9% To escape from conflict situation  3.7% To seek opportunities Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  47. 47. Reason of children for becoming homeless on the streets of Kathmandu 41% of children leave home due to family violence  27% due to peer influence  19% due to economic factors  15% due to disintegration of the family The perpetrators of sexual abuse to children  10.7% foreigner  83% Nepali male  3.6% Nepali female  2.7% Third genderSwornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  48. 48. Problems Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  49. 49. Problems Social problems  Poverty and illiteracy.  Discrimination and lack of accessible resources.  Violent Environment.  Stigmatization. Physical problems.  Lack of adequate nutrition.  Injuries.  Sexual and reproductive health problems.  Common diseases.Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  50. 50. Psychological/mental problems.  A Stressful Past.  A Transitory Lifestyle.  Mental health  Substance abuse Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  51. 51. Public approaches to street children  There are four categories of how societies deal with street children:  Correctional model,  Rehabilitative model,  Outreach strategies, and  Preventive approach. Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  52. 52.  The Correctional model is primarily used by governments and the police.  They view children as a public nuisance and risk to security of the general public.  The objective of this model would be to protect the public and help keep the kids away from a life of crime.  The methods this model uses to keep the children away from the life of crime are the juvenile justice system and specific institutions Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  53. 53.  The Rehabilitative model is supported by churches and NGOs.  The view of this model is that street children are damaged and in need of help.  The objective of this model is to rehabilitate children into mainstream society.  The methods used to keep children from going back to the streets are education, drug detoxification programs, and providing children with a safe family-like environment. Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  54. 54.  The Outreach strategy is supported by street teachers, NGOs, and church organizations.  This strategy views street children as oppressed individuals in need of support from their communities.  The objective of the Outreach strategy is to empower the street children by providing outreach education and training to support children. Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  55. 55.  The Preventive approach is supported by NGOs, the coalition of street children, and lobbying governments.  They view street children’s poor circumstances from negative social and economic forces.  In order to help street children, this approach focuses on the problems that cause children to leave their homes for the street by targeting parents’ unemployment, poor housing campaign for children’s rights. Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  56. 56. Solutions  Laws  Free education  Ethical consumerism and Moral polishing  Create demand for trained and skilled workers  Awareness  Empowerment of poor people  Protection of Children, especially from trafficking and other forms of violence  Protection of children from the conflict situation Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  57. 57. Some of organizations for children  ILO (co-Kathmandu)  CWIN (Child workers in Nepal)  CWISH  Maiti Nepal  ETC (educate the child)  Child Watabaran Centre Nepal  Khushi Nepal  Voice of children  Balmandir Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  58. 58. Conclusion  Child labour and street children are not just an affront to the rights of a child but also a symbol of a society that has lost its way.  The problem of children in Nepal is complex; so the policymakers most employ multiple interventions that are integrated with one another.  They should implement sustainable alternatives to keep children from returning to the hazardous and exploitive situations on the cold streets Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  59. 59.  We should, therefore, all strive to ensure that the fundamental rights of children are protected and that they are accorded the opportunity to go after their dreams and aspirations.  The future is much brighter when the younger generation has a good foundation for success.  The innocence of a child should never be taken away for the purpose of making the lives of adults easier. It is both unfair and morally unacceptable Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  60. 60. Thank you Swornim Bajracharya (MPH )
  • VannaBlankenship

    Jul. 22, 2021
  • SagarGautam29

    Dec. 1, 2020
  • KoushikMondal46

    Feb. 14, 2020
  • Mariayaqub1781

    Nov. 27, 2019
  • EmmaUgo

    Nov. 21, 2019
  • VishalChavan86

    Sep. 25, 2019
  • SumanLynn

    Jul. 25, 2019
  • brightbadom

    May. 3, 2019
  • MohammadwaliKhoshal

    Mar. 13, 2019
  • RamjanInamdar

    Jan. 17, 2019
  • ameliawinslets

    Dec. 26, 2018
  • RilwanuShuaibu1

    Aug. 27, 2018
  • Himanshu290493

    Aug. 4, 2018
  • LabonnyaHossain

    May. 3, 2018

short information on child labour and street children, its situation and related approaches to address these issues


Total views


On Slideshare


From embeds


Number of embeds