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Innovation and creativity 10 skills and techniques of creative thinking

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Skills and tecniques o creative thinking

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Innovation and creativity 10 skills and techniques of creative thinking

  1. 1. Introduction to: Innovation and Creativity BY KAMAL M. AL MASRI Course code: ::::.BEAD4312..:::: Israa University Gaza Faculty of Managerial and Financial Sciences Departmentof Management Chapter 10: Skills and Techniques of creative thinking
  2. 2. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 2 ILO’s Discuss the main skills of creative thinking List the known methods of creative thinking Explore new methods of creative thinking Use methods of creative thinking Explain the design thinking
  3. 3. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 3 Application This chapter includes an application session using DIY Innovation toolkit developed by NESTA.  Students will mainly use the tools:  Tool 04 (Business Model Canvas) and  Tool 20 (Fast Idea Generator).  Other techniques of creative thinking can be used such as “brainstorming”.
  4. 4. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 4
  5. 5. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 5 20
  6. 6. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 6 Introduction  “Creative thinking” means looking at something in a new way.  “thinking outside the box.”  This needs special skills, abilities and specific ways of thinking.  These “ways” are “incorporated” in specific techniques.  These techniques were developed by experts form business and academia.  We are going to focus on main abilities and use some of well known techniques. Students are invited to discover, find, or develop new techniques based upon their understanding of creative thinking concepts.
  7. 7. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 7 Divergent thinking needs specific abilities (skills).  Divergent Thinking is the ability to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions in an effort to find one that works.  This type of thinking is used when solving an abstract or new problem that hasn’t been solved before and could have many possible answers, solutions, or outcomes.  i.e. complex problem…  This ability is comprised of four dimensions; Originality, Flexibility, Fluency and Elaboration.
  8. 8. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 8 Main abilities or levels of creativity 1- Originality 2- Flexibility 3- Fluency 4- Elaboration + Sensitivity to the problems
  9. 9. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 9 1- Originality Measures the infrequency of your responses. It is the ability to look beyond obvious solutions and generate novel ideas and responses. It is how unique and “out-of-this-world” your solutions are. These responses will be unexpected and unfamiliar and may often lead to breakthrough solutions.
  10. 10. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 10 2- Flexibility The ability to generate a variety of ideas and responses across different categories, and to look at things from different points-of-view. It is also the ability to simultaneously think about different concepts as well as switching between them. High Flexibility thinkers are non-linear thinkers and are able to hold two opposing points-of-view in their mind at the same time.
  11. 11. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 11 3- Fluency  Fluency is both the ability to generate a large number of ideas or responses and the ability to deliberately generate alternatives, even when you are satisfied with your current ideas.  An individual who has high Fluency in creative thinking has the ability to think of many diverse ideas quickly.  While Flexibility is about diverse categories of ideas, Fluency is about creating ideas in a specific category.
  12. 12. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 12 4- Elaboration  The ability to expand on an idea and embellish (smarten, prettify) it with details.  It is also the ability to create an intricate plan.  Unlike Fluency, which is the ability to generate ideas, Elaboration refers to the details within each idea.  Elaborate leaders tend to be eloquent, expressive and persuasive.  It’s the ability that put your peers and your colleagues at-ease, especially because they might notice the amount of detail and transparency you are willing to provide.
  13. 13. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 13 Summary
  14. 14. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 14 5- Sensitivity to the problems (awareness) Some experts add a fifth ability, which is “the sensitivity to the problems”, i.e., being aware of problems before others do. The ability to identify problems and the missing information that would help solve them before others…
  15. 15. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 15 Creative thinking approach (reference here)  Creative thinking skills use very different approaches to critical thinking skills. They involve a much more relaxed, open, playful approach.  This can require some risk-taking.  Creative thinking skills involve such approaches as:  Looking for many possible answers rather than one.  Allowing yourself to make wild and crazy suggestions as well as those that seem sensible.  Not judging ideas early in the process - treat all ideas as if they may contain the seeds of something potentially useful.  Allowing yourself to doodle, daydream or play with a theory or suggestion.  Being aware that these approaches necessarily involve making lots of suggestions that are unworkable and may sound silly.  Making mistakes.  Learning from what has not worked as well as what did.
  16. 16. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 16 Developing creative abilities (some hints):  The pedagogical approaches to creativity that appeared to work best included:  having adequate space and time;  fostering self-esteem and self-worth;  mentoring in creative approaches;  involving learners in higher level thinking skills;  encouraging the expression of ideas through a wide variety of media and means of expression;  encouraging interdisciplinary integration of subject areas via topics that are meaningful and relevant to the learner.  Jennifer Franklin, University of Arizona; Michael Theall, Youngstown State University, See article (here)  An other article (here)
  17. 17. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 17 Four categories of creativity techniques (1/2)  1. Divergent Thinking Technique  Free Association (e.g., Brainstorming)  Force-fit Association (e.g., Check List)  Analogical Association (e.g., NM Technique)  2. Convergent Thinking Technique  Similarity-oriented Inductive type (e.g., Library classification) Deductive type (e.g., KJ method)  Flow-oriented: Cause and effect (e.g., Fish-bone technique) and Time-flow (e.g., Program Evaluation & Review Technique, PERT) Reminder ….
  18. 18. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 18 Four categories of creativity techniques (2/2) 3. Combined Technique 4. Attitudinal Technique (organize the process of thinking): Meditative (e.g. Zen, Yoga, Hypnosis), Communicative (e.g. Transactional Analysis), Dramatic (e.g. Role Playing) Reminder ….
  19. 19. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 19 Many different techniques  We saw before:  Divergent thinking techniques  Convergent thinking techniques  Attitudinal techniques  We have plenty of different techniques with different purposes: generating idea, synthetizing, collaborating work, sharing ideas, …  We can combine different techniques!  There is no limit to ways of creative thinking!
  20. 20. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 20 Main techniques to be studied in this course: Brainstorming Six Thinking Hats SCAMPER Design Thinking TRIZ (to be studies next chapter) Other methods: Mind Mapping, Metaphorical Thinking, etc. (to explore by students …)
  21. 21. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 21 1- Brainstorming  One of the simplest techniques you can begin with is Brainstorming.  Alex Osborn developed its original approach and published it in his 1953 book, "Applied Imagination.“  Since then, researchers have criticized it and made many improvements to its original form.
  22. 22. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 22 What is Brainstorming?  Brainstorming is a creativity technique by which efforts are made to find a conclusion for a specific problem by gathering a list of ideas spontaneously contributed.  This technique has different variations: individual, group, guided, directed, …, and different annexes: Brainwriting, reverse Brainstorming, starbursting, the Charette procedure, … For decades, people have used brainstorming to generate ideas, and to come up with creative solutions to problems. However, you need to use brainstorming correctly for it to be fully effective. (read here)
  23. 23. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 23 How it works? (read here)  A combination of relaxed, informal approach to problem solving with lateral thinking.  Encourages people to come up with thoughts and ideas that can, at first, seem a bit crazy.  Some of these ideas can be crafted into original, creative solutions to a problem, while others can spark even more ideas.  This helps to get people unstuck by "jolting" them out of their normal ways of thinking.  During brainstorming sessions, avoid criticize or reward ideas.  You're trying to open up possibilities and break down incorrect assumptions about the problem's limits.  Judgment and analysis at this stage stunts idea generation and limit creativity. Evaluate ideas at the end – this is the time to explore solutions further, using conventional approaches.
  24. 24. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 24 Try it yourself! (read here)  Brainstorm ideas on one topic onto a large piece of paper: don't edit these.  Just write them down allowing yourself to play with an idea whilst you go for a walk.  Draw or paint a theory on paper.  Ask the same question at least twenty times and give a different answer each time.  Combine some of the features of two different objects or ideas to see if you can create several more.  Change your routine. Do things a different way. Walk a different route to college.  Let your mind be influenced by new stimuli such as music you do not usually listen to.  Be open to ideas when they are still new: look for ways of making things work and pushing the idea to its limits.  Ask questions such as 'what if….?' Or 'supposing….?'.
  25. 25. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 25 Taking Your Brainstorming Further (read only, needs a training session).  If you're not getting enough good quality ideas, try using the approaches below to increase the number of ideas that you generate:  The Stepladder Technique – This improves the contribution of quieter group members by introducing one person at a time.  Brainwriting – This is a written approach that you can use to encourage all individuals to generate and develop ideas.  Online Brainstorming (also known as Brain-netting) – An electronic method of brainstorming, this uses a document stored on a central server, or on a Cloud-based system.  Crawford's Slip Writing Approach – You can use this approach to get plenty of ideas from all participants, and to get a view of each idea's popularity.  These techniques help you in specific situations:  Reverse Brainstorming – used to improve a product or service.  Starbursting – helps you develop questions that you need to ask to evaluate a proposal.  Charette Procedure – helps you brainstorm with large groups of people. (Conventional brainstorming becomes increasingly ineffective when more than 10 or 12 people are involved.)  Round-Robin Brainstorming – You can use this approach to get people to contribute ideas without being influenced by others.  Rolestorming – encourages group members to take on other people's identities while brainstorming, thereby reducing their inhibitions.
  26. 26. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 26 Ex.: the KJ Technique? (see)  The KJ-Method or KJ Technique, is an idea generating and prioritizing technique named after its inventor, Jiro Kawakita.  This technique is one of the most popular brainstorming variations for design, team, retrospective, and project meetings.  The KJ Technique includes these steps:  Individual brainstorming: Everyone silently writes down ideas. Each idea goes on a separate note.  Sharing ideas: People take turns sharing the ideas they've written and posting them to the group space.  Grouping or Clustering: Working together, the team makes groups of similar ideas or concepts. Each group then gets named with a single word or short phrase that best captures the core concept underlying the ideas in that group.  Voting: The team then votes on which concepts matter most. Each person gets a set number of votes (or “dots”) that they can place on the concepts they care most about. The concepts that get the most dots win.
  27. 27. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 27 2- De Bono’s six thinking hats  Created by Edward de Bono (published in his 1985 book of the same name).  Helps to look at a decision from all points of view.  Studies problems from different perspectives but one at a time to avoid confusion from too many angles crowding your thinking.  It's a powerful decision-checking technique in group situations, as everyone explores the situation from each perspective at the same time.  Can be used in meetings or on one’s own.  In meetings, it has the benefit of preventing any confrontation that may happen when people with different thinking styles discuss a problem, because every perspective is valid.
  28. 28. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 28 How the “six thinking hats” technique works? (see example here) Each "Thinking Hat" is a different style of thinking. These are explained below: 1- White Hat: with this thinking hat, you focus on the available data. Look at the information that you have, analyze past trends, and see what you can learn from it. Look for gaps in your knowledge, and try to either fill them or take account of them.
  29. 29. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 29 How the “six thinking hats” technique works? (see example here) 2- Red Hat: "wearing" the Red Hat, you look at problems using your intuition, gut reaction, and emotion. Also, think how others could react emotionally. Try to understand the responses of people who do not fully know your reasoning.
  30. 30. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 30 How the “six thinking hats” technique works? (cont.) 3- Black Hat: using Black Hat thinking, look at a decision's potentially negative outcomes. Look at it cautiously and defensively.  why it might not work.  the weak points in a plan. It allows you to eliminate them, alter them, or prepare contingency plans to counter them.  helps to make your plans "tougher" and more resilient.  It can also help you to spot fatal flaws and risks before you embark on a course of action.  It's one of the real benefits of this model. Many successful people get so used to thinking positively that they often cannot see problems in advance. This leaves them under-prepared for difficulties.
  31. 31. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 31 How the “six thinking hats” technique works? (cont.) 4- Yellow Hat: this hat helps you to think positively. It is the optimistic viewpoint that helps you to see all the benefits of the decision and the value in it. Yellow Hat thinking helps you to keep going when everything looks gloomy and difficult.
  32. 32. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 32 How the “six thinking hats” technique works? (cont.) 5- Green Hat: the Green Hat represents creativity. This is where you develop creative solutions to a problem. It is a freewheeling way of thinking, in which there is little criticism of ideas.
  33. 33. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 33 How the “six thinking hats” technique works? (cont.) 6- Blue Hat: this hat represents process control. It's the hat worn by people chairing meetings, for example. When facing difficulties because ideas are running dry, they may direct activity into Green Hat thinking. When contingency plans are needed, they will ask for Black Hat thinking.
  34. 34. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 34 Reminder … Optimistic and Positive thoughts Euphoric and Creative ideas Caution and negative sides Facts and data Order and session management Reactions, Emotions
  35. 35. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 35 3- SCAMPER  SCAMPER is an acronym formed from the abbreviation of: Substitute, Combine, Adapt, Modify (Also magnify and minify), Put to another use , Eliminate, and Reverse.  SCAMPER is a lateral thinking technique which challenges the status quo and helps you explore new possibilities.  Eberle, Bob (1 January 1996). Scamper: Games for Imagination Development. Prufrock Press Inc. ISBN 978-1-882664-24-5.
  36. 36. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 36 SCAMPER concretely:  A series of thought sparkers or provocations which help you to innovate on an existing product, service or situation by looking through different lenses. There are seven provocation lenses in the SCAMPER method (reference here):  Substitute  Combine  Adapt  Modify (Also Magnify and Minify)  Put to another use  Eliminate  Revers  Read more about SCAMPER with examples (here) or (here)
  37. 37. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 37 How to Use the Tool SCAMPER?(see mindtools.com)  SCAMPER is really easy to use:  First, take an existing product or service. This could be one that you want to improve, one that you're currently having problems with, or one that you think could be a good starting point for future development.  Then, ask questions about the product you identified, using the mnemonic to guide you. Brainstorm as many questions and answers as you can. (see example questions, below.)  Finally, look at the answers that you came up with.  Do any stand out as viable solutions?  Could you use any of them to create a new product, or develop an existing one?  If any of your ideas seem viable, then you can explore them further.
  38. 38. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 38 1- Substitute (see here)  Role: Focuses on the parts in the product, service or solution that can be replaced with another.  Example questions:  What part of the process can be substituted without affecting the whole project?  Who or what can be substituted without affecting the process?  What part in the process can be replaced with better alternatives?  Can the project time or place be replaced?  What will happen when we replace part of the project with another?  Where else could you sell the product?  Could we use another alternative of X?  Can we substitute the current device with another better one?  Can we replace the process with simpler one?
  39. 39. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 39 2- Combine (see here)  Role: Analyze the possibility of merging two ideas, stages of the process or product in one single more efficient output. In some cases, combining two innovative ideas can lead to a new product or technology which leads to market strength.  Example questions:  Can we merge two steps of the process?  Can we apply two processes at the same time?  Can our company combine resources with another partner in the market?  Can we mix two or more components together?  Can we combine X and Y technologies?
  40. 40. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 40 3- Adapt (see here)  Role: A brainstorming discussion that aims to adjust or tweak product or service for a better output. This adjustment can range between minor changes to radical changes in the whole project.  Example questions:  What would we need to change to reach better results?  What else could be done in this specific task?  How can we improve the existing process?  How can we adjust the existing product?  How can we make the process more flexible?
  41. 41. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 41 4- Modify, minify or magnify (see here)  Role: changing the process in a way that unleashes more innovative capabilities or solves problems.  Example questions:  How will modifying the process improve results?  What if we had a double consumer base?  If the market was different, what would the process look like?  Can we change the process to work more efficiently?  What if the product is double the current size?
  42. 42. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 42 5- Put to other uses (see here)  Role: How to put the current product or process in another purpose or how to use the existing product to solve problems. For example, this technique can be used to learn how to shift an existing product to another market segment or user type.  Example questions:  What other parts in the company can use the product?  What are the benefits for the product if used elsewhere?  What if we target another market segmentation for the current product?  Can we add a specific step into the process to replace another?  What are other ways can we use it?  Can we recycle the waste for another use?
  43. 43. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 43 6- Eliminate or elaborate (see here)  Role: identify the parts of the process that can be eliminated to improve the process product or service. It also helps to explore the unnecessary parts of the project.  Example questions:  What would happened if we removed this part?  How can we achieve the same output without specific part of the project?  Do we need this specific part?  What would we do if we had to work with half the resources?
  44. 44. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 44 Summary …
  45. 45. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 45 What is design thinking? (see here)  Design Thinking is a human-centered approach to problem-solving used to create new and innovative ideas.  Design Thinking includes a mindset focused on discovering people’s problems and challenges, and then using those to develop practical solutions to address them.  Most teams and organizations use Design Thinking to create new and innovative products, services, processes, customer experiences and business models.
  46. 46. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 46 Description of Design Thinking (see here) The concept of Design Thinking was developed by IDEO founder David Kelley, whose method focuses on three main elements of a product or solution: people, technology, and business. All of these aspects must be focused on the customer,  since the customer is the ultimate driver of the success of a product, service, or business model.
  47. 47. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 47 Design Thinking consists of four main elements:  Define the Problem: Choose the right problem to solve in order to make customers’ lives easier, then frame the problem in a way that invites creative solutions.  Generate and analyze many solutions: Gathering insights from multiple disciplines in a judgement-free environment will provide a wider range of ideas.  Refine and improve selected ideas: This stage may need to be repeated many times until the right idea surfaces.  Choose the best solution and execute: Commit resources to make the selected idea successful.
  48. 48. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 48 A new and promising technique …  By focusing on customers and their unmet needs, Design Thinking helps organizations be more innovative, create higher demand, and bring their products and services to market faster.  Today, many universities and programs teach design thinking, most notably the Design School (D School) at Stanford University.  Many of these programs base their methodologies in ethnography, qualitative research, various brainstorming techniques, and the Lean Start-up movement.
  49. 49. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 49 Advantage/difference  Thinking like a designer can transforms the way organizations develop products, services, processes, and strategy.  This approach, which IDEO calls design thinking, brings together what is desirable from a human point of view with what is technologically feasible and economically viable.  It also allows people who aren't trained as designers to use creative tools to address a vast range of challenges. (IDEO)
  50. 50. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 50 TRIZ method Russian Acronym: Theoria Resheneyva Isobretatelskehuh Zadach. i.e. “Theory of Inventive Problem Solving” Will be discussed in a separated chapter.
  51. 51. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 51 Mind Maps To be discovered by students.
  52. 52. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 52 In Gaza …  Design Thinking and Its Use in NGOs in Gaza Strip, Owda, Rasha O.; Owda, Maram; Abed, Mohammed N.; Abdalmenem, Samia A. M.; Abu-Naser, Samy S.; Al Shobaki, Mazen J. Read (here). Not sure of the source !!!
  53. 53. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 53 Final thoughts: Combine analytical and creative thinking skills (reference here) Many important breakthroughs in science and innovation have resulted from:  Focusing on a subject in a logical, analytical way for some time, thinking through possible solutions.  Daydreaming or distracting the mind, but holding the same problem lightly 'at the back of the mind'.  The answer has often emerged on dreams or daydreams when the innovator was not trying so hard to find the answer.  However, the daydream on its own did not achieve anything.
  54. 54. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 54 References Mindtools.com McMillan IHE Publisher IDEO.com Designorate.com …
  55. 55. 55 Thank you …

Editor's Notes

  • A good deal of research refutes Osborn's claim that group brainstorming could generate more ideas than individuals working alone.[10] For example, in a review of 22 studies of group brainstorming, Michael Diehl and Wolfgang Stroebe found that, overwhelmingly, groups brainstorming together produce fewer ideas than individuals working separately


    What is reverse brainstorming?
    Reverse brainstorming is a technique that flips typical brainstorming practices upside down, allowing you to approach complex problems from a different perspective.
    In traditional brainstorming, people will focus on collecting ideas for how to solve a problem. In reverse brainstorming, you instead look at what could make the problem worse or why the problem can’t be solved. Then, you reverse those ideas to discover new things you didn’t see before, allowing you to look at the problem, the cause and the solutions in a completely new way.
    So when is a good time to use reverse brainstorming instead of traditional brainstorming?
    When people have trouble coming up with good ideas quickly;
    When people are stumped on how to solve a problem;
    When you want people to let go of their pre-conceived ideas about a topic; or
    When you want people to step out of their comfort zone and find new ways to problem-solve.
    https://www.mindjet.com/blog/2018/06/solve-business-problem-reverse-brainstorming/
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