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Innovation and creativity 09 intelligence and thinking

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Course name: innovation and creativity
Chapter 09: intelligence and thinking

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Innovation and creativity 09 intelligence and thinking

  1. 1. Introduction to: Innovation and Creativity BY KAMAL M. AL MASRI Course code: ::::.BEAD4312..:::: Israa University Gaza Faculty of Managerial and Financial Sciences Departmentof Management Chapter 09: Thinking and intelligence
  2. 2. 2 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI 1. •A man andhis sonare in a car accident. The father dies on the scene, but thechildis rushed to the hospital. Whenhe arrives the surgeon says, "I can't operate onthis boy,he is my son! " How can this be? The surgeon was his mother.
  3. 3. 3 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI 2. Find the odd figure… The first figure (up/left) is unique because it’s the only one who is not odd! (Whatever is the criteria, it is not odd, il always belongs to a group of 4 objects)
  4. 4. 4 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI 3. Find a solution or an explanation •A man is wearingblack. Black shoes, socks, trousers, coat, gloves and ski mask. He is walking down a back street with all the street lamps off. A black car is coming towards him with its lightoff but somehow manages to stop in time. How did the driver see theman? It was day time.
  5. 5. 5 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI 4. Find a solution or an explanation • One day Kerry celebrated her birthday. • Twodays later herolder twinbrother, Terry, celebrated hisbirthday. How? • Answer:Atthetimeshe wentintolabor,the motherofthetwinswas travelingby boat. Theoldertwin,Terry, was born first earlyon March 1st. The boatthen crossed a time zone and Kerry,the younger twin,wasborn onFebruary the 28th.Therefore,the younger twincelebratesher birthday twodays beforeher olderbrother. • Answer2: Becauseone ofthemdidnot necessarilycelebratetheirbirthday on the day they wereborn,but celebratedlater or earlier.Much simplerthan havingMomgiving birth whilecrossing the InternationalDateLineand tossingin a LeapYear and thelike. Needlesslycomplicated.
  6. 6. 6 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI 5. Find a solution or an explanation •Why is it better tohaveround manhole covers thansquare ones? This is logical rather thanlateral, but it is agood puzzle thatcan besolved by lateral thinking techniques. •It is supposedlyused by a very well-knownsoftware company as an interview question for prospectiveemployees. •Answer:Asquare manhole cover can beturned and dropped down thediagonalof the manhole. A round manhole cannot be dropped down the manhole. So for safety and practicality,allmanhole covers should be round.
  7. 7. 7 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI 6. Find a solution or an explanation •You are given aballand you are asked to throw it as hard as you can but it must return back to you. It is an openground and you can't findany wallor objectin your vicinity. Thereis no one around to catch your balland throw it back to you. Also, you can't attachany stringor rope with the ball. •Answer:Itis an openground right?You canjust throw the ball inair and it willbe brought back to your hand automaticallyby the gravity.
  8. 8. 8 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI 7. Find a solution or an explanation •Solve the brain teaser by moving 3 sticks and form a square.
  9. 9. 9 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI 8. Find a solution or an explanation •If we tell you that there is a relation between the numbers and letters in the givenfigure, can you analyze it and find the missing letter in the last box ? •Solution: •The last missing throw will have 3 as the result. This is because, with each pair of the throws you can find that the total sum is increasing by three and then decreasing by one. Therefore the missing throw be 3.
  10. 10. 10 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI 9. Find a solution or an explanation • EightBrothers livein an oldhouse where there is noelectricityand nocomputers or any othergadget. Brother-1: ReadingComics Brother-2: Playing Chess Brother-3: Writing Brother-4: makingfoodforthe family Brother-5:sleepingand snoring Brother-6: cleaninghouse Brother-7: wateringthe plants whatis Brother-8doing ? Solution: Playing chess Game needs two players so Brother-8 is playing chess with Brother-2
  11. 11. 11 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Observations? 1. Not easy tofind a solution. 2. Nounique answer! 3. The answers may seem ridiculous… 4. A lot of imagination is needed! •What else?
  12. 12. 12 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI ILO’s •Discuss the meaning of intelligence. •Discover the intelligence abilities. •Contrast the different types of thinking. •Explain importanceof creative thinking. •Discuss the concepts of lateral thinking. •Explain the design thinking. •Solve basic complex problems.
  13. 13. 13 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Introduction •Thinkingand intelligenceare majortopics in phycology(and now in technology). •Theyhave an importantrole inthe humanlife. •Religion(Islam) encourages ustothinkaboutthings that compose our life. •Thinkingand intelligenceare tightlyrelated to creativity.
  14. 14. 14 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI What is “thinking”? •Thinking refers to “the process of considering or reasoning about something.” •It is “the actionof using one's mind to produce thoughts” (merriam-webster.com).
  15. 15. 15 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Concretely … •Thinking is “manipulatinginformation,as when we form concepts, engage inproblem solving, reason and make decisions.” •The act of thinking, produces thoughts… •See “the science of thinking(here).
  16. 16. 16 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI What is intelligence? (many definitions) •“the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills”, •“the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, critical thinking, and problem solving.” • ”the ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations : reason also : the skilled use of reason.” • www.merriam-webster.com
  17. 17. 17 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI What is intelligence? (cont.) •“the ability to apply knowledge to manipulate one's environment or to think abstractly as measured by objective criteria (such as tests)” •Human intelligence is “mental quality that consists of the abilitiesto learn from experience, adapt to new situations, understand and handle abstract concepts, and use knowledge to manipulate one’s environment.” • www.merriam-webster.com
  18. 18. 18 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI The nature of “intelligence” •An artistic work such as Gustav Eiffel, •The ideas of Voltaire, • The novels of Agatha Christie, … •Different natures that imply different skills and behaviors: • Learning, calculating, memorizing, feeling, formulating words, prioritizing, making a vision, choosing expressions, expecting events, … • Also positive thinking, judgment, adaptability, creativity …
  19. 19. 19 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI To resume … •Intelligence is the ability of a “being” to effectively interact with its environment in order to achieve its goals. •Its all about “abilities”, “cognitive” or mental abilities. “ability” is main the keyword!
  20. 20. 20 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Intelligence “abilities” •Intelligenceabilities can belogical, mathematical,emotional, spatial,imaginative, creative, … •Intelligence“abilities”include: • memory, • comprehension, • understanding, • social, interpersonal, • reasoning, and • abstract thought. • … One of the most known theories is: Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences
  21. 21. 21 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Howard Gardner’s eight specific “intelligences”. (Adapted from Gardner, 1999) Intelligence Description Linguistic The ability to speak and write well Logico-mathematical The ability to use logic and mathematical skills to solve problems Spatial The ability to think and reason about objects in three dimensions Musical The ability to perform and enjoy music Kinesthetic (body) The ability to move the body in sports, dance, or other physical activities Interpersonal The ability to understand and interact effectively with others Intra-personal The ability to understand oneself and one’s thoughts and feelings Naturalistic The ability to recognize, identify, and understand animals, plants, and other living things
  22. 22. 22 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI For psychologists, these abilities are: (very well mind) •To learn: The acquisition, retention, and use of knowledge. •To recognize problems: To put knowledge to use, people must be able to identify possible problems in the environment thatneed to be addressed. •To solve problems: People must then be able to take what they have learned to come upwith a useful solutionsto a problem they have noticed in the world around them.
  23. 23. 23 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Triarchic theory of intelligence •One advocate of the idea of multiple intelligences is thepsychologistRobertSternberg. •Sternberghas proposeda triarchic (three- part) theory of intelligencethat proposes that peoplemaydisplaymoreorlessanalytical intelligence,creativeintelligence,andpractical intelligence. (here)
  24. 24. 24 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Can be measured and evaluated … •Read (here)
  25. 25. 25 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Intelligence as a General Ability •Accordingto Peter Taylor in TheBirthofProjectIntelligence,this generalabilitycan be broken down into6 separateabilities: 1. Adaptability to a new environment orto changes in the current environment 2. Capacity for knowledgeand the ability to acquire it 3. Capacity for reason and abstract thought 4. Abilityto comprehend relationships 5. Abilityto evaluate andjudge 6. Capacity for originaland productive thought
  26. 26. 26 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Measures of (human) intelligence • Intelligence quotients, or IQ tests, compare your performance with other people your age who take the same test. • These tests don’t measure all kinds of intelligence, however. • For example, such tests can’t identify differences in social intelligence, the expertise people bring to their interactions with others. • There are also generational differences in the population as awhole. • Better nutrition, more education and other factors have resulted in IQ improvements for each generation. • https://www.apa.org/topics/intelligence/
  27. 27. 27 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Intelligence abilities and IQ •Intelligenceis not quite the same as IQ, althoughpeople use theterms interchangeably. •IQ, which stands for "Intelligence Quotient," is a score determined by an IQtest. •IQtests are designedto measure a person's intelligence, a general ability.
  28. 28. 28 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Rationale (for studying intelligence) •Disregardinghealth and nutrition issues,there aretwo main ideasthat encourage us to think about improvingour (or others’) intelligence: •1- “Brain cells” grow as they are “solicited”and“used” “correctly” (just like hypertrophy inbones*). •2- In orderto receive and treat information and knowledge, the brain have to be prepared « formatted» (justlike plowingthe land before cultivating it.) • * See «How does exercise make your muscles stronger?» (here) Important!
  29. 29. 29 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Yes, our brain can be “formatted”! •Our brain can (needto) be “formatted”to accept certain types ofthinking … •A big and interestingtopic… •Have to do with many concepts in human (and others) phycology and neuroscience: perception, propaganda, learning, experience, influence, …
  30. 30. 30 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI How our brains work? (just have a look) The brain processes information received from the senses and body, and sends messages back to the body. Brain tissue is made up of about 100 billion nerve cells (neurons) and one trillion supporting cells which stabilize the tissue. Each neuron is connected to more than 1,000 other neurons, making the total number of connections in the brain around 60 trillion! For more details (here) Neurons: the brain tissue is made up of 80-100 billion nerve cells (neurons).
  31. 31. 31 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Thinking and behavior … •Thinking styles have an important impact on personality and behavior. •Weuse different types of thinking skills every second of the day, especially when trying to solve problems.
  32. 32. 32 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Many types of thinking … •Types of thinking can be divided into several opposing categories, for example: •ConcreteThinking vs. AbstractThinking. •ConvergentThinkingvs. DivergentThinking. •Creative Thinking vs. AnalyticalThinking. •Sequential(linear)Thinking vs. HolisticThinking.
  33. 33. 33 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Abstract vs. Concrete thinking • Abstract thinkers are ableto relateseemingly randomthings with each other. • theycanseethebiggerpicture. • theymaketheconnectionsthatothersfinddifficulttosee. • theyhavetheabilityto look beyondwhatisobviousandsearchfor hiddenmeanings. • theycanreadbetweenthelinesandenjoysolvingcryptic puzzles. • theydon’t likeroutineandgetboredeasily. •Concretethinkerswill lookat whatis visibleand reliable. • will onlyconsider the literal meaning while abstract thinking goes deeperthan the facts to consider multiple or hidden meanings. • concretethinkers are unlikely to get distracted by“what ifs” or other minor details.
  34. 34. 34 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Analytical and critical thinking • Analytical thinkers like to separate a whole into its basic parts in order to examine these parts and their relationships. • theyare great problem-solversand have astructured and methodical way of approaching tasks. • will seekanswersand use logic rather than emotional thinking in life. • However,they have a tendency to overthink things and can ruminate on the same subject for months. • Critical thinking takes analytical thinking up a level. • they exercise careful evaluation or judgment in orderto determine the authenticity, accuracy, worth,validity, or value of something. • ratherthan strictly breaking downthe information, critical thinking explores other elements that could have an influence on conclusions.
  35. 35. 35 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Critical thinking in Islam (tafakkur) •See article (here) and give your opinion …
  36. 36. 36 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Creative thinking vs. Concrete thinking • Creativethinkersthinkoutsidethebox and willcome up withingenious solutionstosolve their dilemmas inlife. • theylike to break away fromthe traditions and norms ofsociety whenit comes tonew ideas and ways of thinking. • theycansometimes be ridiculed as society prefersto keep the status quo. • canalso court jealously if theymanage tofollow their dreams and work in a creative field. • Concrete thinkingfocuseson the physicalworld, rather thanthe abstractone. • it is all about thinking ofobjects or ideas as specific items, ratherthan as a theoretical representationofa more general idea. • they like hardfacts, figuresand statistics. • For example, you will not get any philosophers who think in concreteterms. • Children think in concretetermsas it is a very basic and literal form ofunderstanding.
  37. 37. 37 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI •Many experts argue that creative thinking uses our right brain… Place of creative thinking in our brain… But, the reality is far more complex… Creative intelligence needs special types of connections that neuroscience is still trying to find!
  38. 38. 38 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Convergent vs. divergent thinking • Convergent thinkingis aprocess of combininga finite numberof perspectives or ideas tofind a single solution. • theywill targetthese possibilities, or convergethem inwards, to comeup with a solution. • Ifyou are a convergentthinker, you are more likely to be an analytical orconcretethinker. • Youare generally able to logically processthoughts so you canuseyour ability toremain cool and calm in times of turmoil. • Youare also more likely to be a natural problem solver. • Bygatheringvariousbitsof information,convergent thinkersare able to putthe pieces of a puzzle together and come up withalogical answerto thequestion of “Who hasdone it?” Sherlock Holmes!!! • Convergent thinking includesanalyticaland concretetypes of thinking. Convergent thinking includes analytical and concrete types of thinking.
  39. 39. 39 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Divergent thinking • Bycontrast, divergent thinkingistheoppositeofconvergentthinking. • It isa wayofexploringaninfinitenumberofsolutionstofindone thatiseffective. • Insteadof startingoffwithasetnumberofpossibilitiesandconvergingonan answer,it goes asfar andwideasnecessaryandmovesoutwardsinsearchofthesolution. • Includesabstractandcreativetypesofthinking. • Itisall aboutlookingat atopicor problemfrommanydifferentangles.Insteadoffocusing inwardsitbranchesoutwards.Itisanimaginativewayoflookingattheworld. Assuch,ituses abstractthinkingto comeupwithnewideasanduniquesolutionstoproblems. • They’lltakethemeanderingroute,ratherthanthetriedandtrustedstraightandnarrow approach. Ifyou area divergentthinker,you aremorelikelyto beagood storyteller or creativewriter. Divergent thinking: Includes abstract and creative types of thinking.
  40. 40. 40 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Intersection among types of thinking …
  41. 41. 41 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Important thinking types for innovation •Howcan we takeadvantageof thedifferent types of thinking? •Thinking andthinking techniquesarerelated to creativity(see here). •Thinking is always useful for creativity andinnovation, but we can notice thatsome types are used more than othersin creativity: • Critical thinking • Parallel thinking • Creative thinking • …
  42. 42. 42 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Creativity Techniques (TAN, 2009: 329) •Scientistsay hat there are hundreds of creativity techniques. •Usingthe vocabulary of the cognitiveprocess developed by J. P. Guilford, the techniques can be divided into two categories: •divergent thinkingtechniques:thinking for generating ideas and data. •convergent thinkingtechniques:thinkingthat organizes and synthesizes ideas and data. •The author adds two other techniques.
  43. 43. 43 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Four categories of creativity techniques (1/2) •1. Divergent Thinking Technique •FreeAssociation (e.g., Brainstorming) •Force-fit Association (e.g., Check List) •Analogical Association (e.g., NM Technique) •2. Convergent Thinking Technique •Similarity-oriented Inductivetype(e.g.,Libraryclassification)Deductivetype(e.g., KJ method) •Flow-oriented: Cause andeffect (e.g., Fish-bonetechnique) and Time-flow(e.g., Program Evaluation& ReviewTechnique, PERT)
  44. 44. 44 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Four categories of creativity techniques (2/2) •3.Combined Technique •4. Attitudinal Technique (organize the process of thinking): •Meditative(e.g. Zen, Yoga), •Communicative (e.g.TransactionalAnalysis), •Dramatic (e.g.Role Playing) Some of these techniques are going to be detailed separately …
  45. 45. 45 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI De Bono’s Lateral thinking (1/2) •Lateral thinking is a manner of solvingproblems using anindirect and creativeapproach via reasoningthat is not immediately obvious. •Itinvolvesideasthat may not beobtainableusing only traditional step-by-steplogic. •The term was promulgated in1967 by Edwardde Bono. • He cites the Judgment of Solomon as an example, where King Solomon resolves a dispute over the parentage of a child by calling for the child to be cut in half, and making his judgment according to the reactions that this order receives.
  46. 46. 46 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI De Bono’s Lateral thinking (2/2) •Edward de Bono also links lateral thinking with humour, arguing there's a switch-over from a familiar pattern to a new, unexpected one. •It is this moment of surprise, generating laughter and new insight, which facilitates the ability to see a different thought pattern which initially was not obvious. According to de Bono, lateral thinking deliberately distances itself from the standard perception of creativity as "vertical" logic, the classic method for problem solving.
  47. 47. 47 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Lateral thinking or Thinking out of the box … •Without letting your pencil leave the paper,can you draw four straight lines through the following nine dots? • For more, see “TheOriginal "Thinking Outside theBox" Puzzle!”, here)
  48. 48. 48 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Psychological Inertia •Why did we imagineda box around the 9 points? •Psychological Inertia signifies the reluctance of doing something in a different way as you have an indisposition to change. •You are drawn to behaving or acting in a certain way as this is howyour mind has been programmedto think and act. • For moredetails, see “Overcome psychological inertia” (here).
  49. 49. 49 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Summary … • Lateral-thinking is the number one skill in a creative’stoolkit, • Often, creativityinvolveslateralthinking, • We saw before: Innovative people have something calledcreative intelligence,which enables discoveryyet differs from other types of intelligence(as suggested byHoward Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences). • Lateral-thinkingcan be learnt, • Puzzles can be used as a brainboosting warm-up…
  50. 50. 50 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Final thoughts •Don’t believe experts! •Discuss the idea: •Can machines be creative? •Is creativitya good thing? Always? •….
  51. 51. 51 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI Don’t believe experts! • The 7 Worst Tech Predictions of All Time • "I think there is a world market for maybe five computers.“ • Thomas Watson,presidentofIBM, 1943 • "Televisionwon't be able to hold onto any marketit captures after the first six months. People will soon get tired of staring at a plywood box every night.“ • DarrylZanuck, executive at20thCenturyFox,1946 • "There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home." • KenOlsen, founderofDigital EquipmentCorporation, 1977 • "Almost all of the manypredictions now beingmade about 1996 hingeon the Internet's continuing exponentialgrowth. ButI predict the Internet will soongo spectacularly supernova and in 1996 catastrophically collapse." • RobertMetcalfe, founderof 3Com,1995 • Seethearticle (here)
  52. 52. 52 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI •Reportage TF1 Le JT :Les ambitions démesurées du géant Huawei
  53. 53. 53 Introduction tothe concepts of Creativity & Innovation, by Kamal M. AL MASRI References: • AI - GirlTAN, “Creativity, a handbookfor teachers”, World Scientific, New Jersey, 2007. •https://www.psychologytoday.com •https://www.forbes.com •Other specialized Websites.

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