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Innovation and creativity 05 innovative people

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Course name: Innovation and creativity
Chapter 05: innovative people

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Innovation and creativity 05 innovative people

  1. 1. Chapter 05: Innovative people BY KAMAL M. AL MASRI Israa University Gaza Faculty of Managerial and Financial Sciences Departmentof Management 1 Course code: ::::.BEAD4312..::::
  2. 2. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 2 Introduction Innovation needs a real leadership as well as a nurturing and encouraging environment. The personality of employees and organizations counts.
  3. 3. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 3 Internal drivers of creativity, innovation and change (next chapter).  Many factors can affect this environment: 1- people: Skills, attitudes 2- primary task (core or main business), 3- technology, 4- administrative structures, … Recall
  4. 4. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 4 Creative and innovative persons  The place of people is central in the innovation process…  Attitudes, beliefs, technical skills, and behaviors have a direct impact on innovation.  Reciprocal (bidirectional) relationship between the environment and innovative (creative) persons. A. The environment has a strong impact on people. B. Innovative people influence their environment.
  5. 5. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 5 Who is the innovator? Leonardo Da Vinci, Steve Jobs, Pierre Omidyar, Jeff Bezoz, Elon Musk, Thomas Edison, …  What do they have in common?  What is special with them? What can we learn from them?
  6. 6. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 6 Not as easy as some think … Theories try to explain, through answering questions like:  What are the main characteristics of innovative people (personae and/or behavioral)?  How to promote innovative skills and abilities?  Who to select innovative persons?  Should they be a copy of Steve Jobs? Simple questions, but ….
  7. 7. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 7 What makes Innovators different? Innovative entrepreneurs have something called creative intelligence, which enables discovery yet differs from other types of intelligence (as suggested by Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences). It is more than the cognitive skill of being “right-brained”.
  8. 8. 8 Innovators engage both sides of the brain as they leverage the five discovery skills to create new ideas. 8
  9. 9. 9 To read: Creative Intelligence: Harnessing the Power to Create, Connect, and Inspire Hardcover – March 5, 2013
  10. 10. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 10 Let’s detect some behavior… Imagine that you have an identical twin, endowed with the same brains and natural talents that you have. You’re both given one week to come up with a creative new business-venture idea. During that week, you come up with ideas alone in your room. (Dyer et al., 2011:28)
  11. 11. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 11 Let’s detect some behavior… (cont.)  In contrast, your twin:  (1) talks with 10 people (an engineer, a musician, a stay-at-home dad, and a designer) about the venture,  (2) visits three innovative start-ups to observe what they do,  (3) samples five “new to the market” products,  (4) shows a prototype he’s built to five people, and  (5) asks the questions “What if I tried this?” and “Why do you do that?” at least 10 times each day during these networking, observing, and experimenting activities. Who do you bet will come up with the more innovative (and doable) idea?
  12. 12. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 12 A cognitive skill of “associational thinking” Innovators “Think Different,” to use a well-known Apple slogan. Their minds excel at linking together ideas that aren’t obviously related to produce original ideas (we call this cognitive skill “associational thinking” or “associating”). But to think different, innovators had to “act different.” Many different models …
  13. 13. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 13 The innovator’s DNA Model
  14. 14. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 14 1- Questioning  Innovators are good questioners who show a passion for inquiry.  Their queries frequently challenge the status quo.  Just as Jobs did when he asked, “Why does a computer need a fan?”  They love to ask, “If we tried this, what would happen?”  Innovators, like Jobs, ask questions to understand how things really are today, why they are that way, and how they might be changed or disrupted.  Collectively, their questions provoke new insights, connections, possibilities, and directions.
  15. 15. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 15 Questions are important … Dyer et al. (2011), found that innovators consistently demonstrate a high Q/A ratio, where questions (Q) not only outnumber answers (A) in a typical conversation, but are valued at least as highly as good answers.
  16. 16. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 16 2- Observing  Innovators are also intense observers.  They carefully watch the world around them including customers, products, services, technologies, and companies.  The observations help them gain insights into and ideas for new ways of doing things.  Jobs’s observation trip to Xerox PARC provided the germ of insight that was the catalyst for both the Macintosh’s innovative operating system and mouse, and Apple’s current OSX operating system.
  17. 17. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 17 3- Networking  Innovators spend a lot of time and energy finding and testing ideas through a diverse network of individuals who vary wildly in their backgrounds and perspectives.  Rather than simply doing social networking or networking for resources, they actively search for new ideas by talking to people who may offer a radically different view of things.  For example, Jobs talked with an Apple Fellow named Alan Kay, who told him to “go visit these crazy guys up in San Rafael, California.”  The crazy guys were Ed Catmull and Alvy Ray, who headed up a small computer graphics operation called Industrial Light & Magic (the group created special effects for George Lucas’s movies). This gave birth later to Pixar Studios.
  18. 18. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 18 4- Experimenting  Finally, innovators are constantly trying out new experiences and piloting new ideas.  Experimenters unceasingly explore the world intellectually and experientially, holding convictions at bay and testing hypotheses along the way.  They visit new places, try new things, seek new information, and experiment to learn new things.  Jobs, for example, has tried new experiences all his life—from meditation and living in an ashram in India to dropping in on a calligraphy class at Reed College.  All these varied experiences would later trigger ideas for innovations at Apple Computer.
  19. 19. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 19 Code for generating innovative business ideas Collectively, these discovery skills —the cognitive skill of associating and the behavioral skills of questioning, observing, networking, and experimenting— constitute what we call the innovator’s DNA, or the code for generating innovative business ideas.
  20. 20. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 20 The research says: Discovery Skill Strengths Differ for Disruptive Innovators To understand that innovative entrepreneurs develop and use different skills, look at figure. It shows the percentile rank scores on each of the five discovery skills for four well-known founders and innovators:  Pierre Omidyar (eBay), Michael Dell (Dell), Michael Lazaridis (Research In Motion), and Scott Cook (Intuit).
  21. 21. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 21 The percentile rank indicates the percentage of over five thousand executives and innovators in our database who scored lower on that particular skill. A particular skill is measured by the frequency and intensity with which these individuals engage in activities that compose the skill.
  22. 22. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 22 The challenge and courage to innovate Why do innovators question, observe, network, and experiment more than typical executives?  Two common themes:  First, they actively desire to change the status quo.  Second, they regularly take smart risks to make that change happen.  Consider the consistency of language that innovators use to describe their motives.  to “put a ding in the universe.”, to “change the world.”  These innovators steer entirely clear of a common cognitive trap called the status quo bias.
  23. 23. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 23 “the status quo bias” The status quo bias: the tendency to prefer an existing state of affairs to alternative ones. It is an emotional bias; a preference for the current state of affairs. Most of us simply accept the status quo!
  24. 24. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 24 Rationale (Adair et al., 2004) Managers should remember that creativity should challenge the status quo to test continuously for improvements, because: a thing is not right because we do it a method is not good because we use it equipment is not the best because we own it
  25. 25. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 25 Courage and ambition… I’m out to “change the world ...” LarryPage,Google Cofounder
  26. 26. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 26 In summary, the DNA of innovators—or the code for generating innovative ideas—is expressed in the model:  The key skill for generating innovative ideas is the cognitive skill of associational thinking.  The reason that some people generate more associations than others is partly because their brains are just wired that way.  Concretely: they frequently engage in the behavioral skills (4 skills).  These are the catalysts for associational thinking.  Why do some people engage these four skills more than others?  Answer: they have the courage to innovate.
  27. 27. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 27 Innovation also needs passion… “Innovation starts with the heart—with a passion for improving the lives of those around you.”  Gary Hamel, The Heart of Innovation
  28. 28. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 28 To be creative an individual should: (Adair, et al.)  1- think beyond the invisible frameworks that surround problems /situations  2- recognize when assumptions are being made and challenge them  3- spot blinkered thinking and widen the field of vision (to draw on the experiences of other individuals/businesses)  4- develop/adapt ideas from more than one source
  29. 29. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 29 Cont.  5- practice serendipity (finding valuable and agreeable things when not particularly seeking them) – having a wide attention span and range of interests is important  6- ‘transfer technology’ from one field to another  7- be open/prepared to use chance or unpredictable things/events to advantage  8- explore thought processes and the key elements of the mind at work in analyzing, valuing and synthesizing
  30. 30. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 30 Cont.  9- use his/her ‘depth’ mind (the unconscious mind) for example by sleeping on a problem to generate creative solutions to problems  10- note down thoughts/ideas that apparently drop into the mind unsolicited so that they are not forgotten  11- use analogy (to improve imaginative thinking) to find ‘models’ or solutions in ‘nature’, in existing products/services and/or in other organizations – not always reinventing the wheel  12- try, as appropriate, to sometimes make the strange familiar and the familiar strange to spark new ideas
  31. 31. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 31 Cont. 13- make connections with points that are:  • apparently irrelevant  • disguised/buried or not easily accessible  • outside own sphere of expertise  • lacking authority 14- suspend judgement to encourage the creative process and avoid premature criticism – analysis and criticism repress creativity)
  32. 32. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 32 Cont.  15- know when to leave a problem (remaining aware but detached) for solutions to emerge – patience is important here as is the suspension of judgment  16- tolerate ambiguity and occasionally live with doubt and uncertainty  17 stimulate own curiosity (in everything including travel) and the skills of observation, listening, reading and recording.
  33. 33. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 33 References  Essentials of the Management of Creativity and Innovation in Education, Business, and Engineering, Christian H. Werner and Min Tang, 2017. in Handbook of the management of creativity and innovation: Theory and practice, World Scientific Press, 2017.  Thorogood,.The John Adair Handbook of Management and Leadership.[2004.ISBN1854180045]  Jeff Dyer, Hal Gregersen, Clayton M. Christensen-The Innovator's DNA_ Mastering the Five Skills of Disruptive Innovators -Harvard Business Press (2011)
  34. 34. Innovation and Creativity By Kamal AL MASRI 34 Additional references HANDBOOK OF THE MANAGEMENT OF CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION, Theory and Practice (see)  Section III Creativity and Innovation in Business 153  Chapter 8 The Management of Creativity and Innovation: Is It Possible and How? 155 Andreas Reichert  Chapter 9 Good Practice of Creativity and Innovation Management in Business 175 Eric Shiu  Chapter 10 Innovation Management for Products and Processes in the Automobile Industry: Example of BMW 191 Eric Shiu, Andreas Bonacina and Franz-Michael Binninger
  35. 35. 35 Thank you!

Editor's Notes

  • We may even like routine and prefer not to rock the boat. We adhere to the saying, “if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it,” while not really questioning whether “it” is “broke.” In contrast, innovators see many things as “broke.” And they want to fix them.
  • They are willing to embrace a mission for change and take risks to make change happen.
    The bottom line is that to improve your ability to generate innovative ideas, you need to practice associational thinking and more frequently engage in questioning, observing, networking, and experimenting.
    That will likely only happen if you can somehow cultivate the courage to innovate.
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