Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Upcoming SlideShare
What to Upload to SlideShare
What to Upload to SlideShare
Loading in …3
×
1 of 21

Innovation and creativity 03 the process of change

0

Share

Download to read offline

Course name: Innovation and creativity
Chapter 03: the process of change

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Related Audiobooks

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Innovation and creativity 03 the process of change

  1. 1. 03: The Process of Change BY KAMAL M. AL MASRI Course code: ::::.BEAD4312..::::
  2. 2. By. Kamal AL MASRI, based on: Robbins & Coulter, 2016 Introduction  Processes of change, creativity and innovation are often studied and researched as distinct and recognizably separate areas of study!  In practice, they interact and overlap as creative ideas generate the possibility for new innovations that in turn require acceptance and implementation in order to become established in changing organizations
  3. 3. By. Kamal AL MASRI, based on: Robbins & Coulter, 2016 Two Views of the Change Process  The Calm Waters Metaphor – Lewin’s description* of the change process as a break in the organization’s equilibrium state. • Unfreezing the status quo • Changing to a new state • Refreezing to make the change permanent  White-Water Rapids Metaphor – The lack of environmental stability and predictability requires that managers and organizations continually adapt (manage change actively) to survive. Copyright © 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. 7-3 Now, the stability and predictability of the Calm waters metaphor don’t exist! Any organization that treats change as the occasional disturbance in an otherwise calm and stable world runs a great risk
  4. 4. By. Kamal AL MASRI, based on: Robbins & Coulter, 2016 Exhibit 7-1: External and Internal Forces for Change Copyright © 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. 7- 4
  5. 5. By. Kamal AL MASRI, based on: Robbins & Coulter, 2016 Exhibit 7-2 The Three-Step Change Process Copyright © 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. 7- 5
  6. 6. By. Kamal AL MASRI, based on: Robbins & Coulter, 2016 What Is Organizational Change? Organizational Change: Any alterations in the people, structure, or technology of an organization. Change Agents: persons who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing the change process. Copyright © 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. 7- 6
  7. 7. By. Kamal AL MASRI, based on: Robbins & Coulter, 2016 Types of Change  Structure: Changing an organization’s structural components or its structural design.  Technology: Adopting new equipment, tools, or operating methods that displace old skills and require new ones. • Automation – replacing certain tasks done by people with machines • Computerization  People: Changing attitudes, expectations, perceptions, and behaviors of the workforce. Copyright © 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. 7- 7 Managers face three main types of change:
  8. 8. By. Kamal AL MASRI, based on: Robbins & Coulter, 2016 Exhibit 7-3 Three Types of Change Copyright © 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. 7- 8
  9. 9. By. Kamal AL MASRI, based on: Robbins & Coulter, 2016 Changing People Organizational Development (OD): Techniques or programs to change people and the nature and quality of interpersonal work relationships.  Global OD: OD techniques that work for U.S. organizations may be inappropriate in other countries and cultures. Copyright © 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. 7- 9
  10. 10. By. Kamal AL MASRI, based on: Robbins & Coulter, 2016Copyright © 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. Exhibit 7-4: Popular OD Techniques Just have a look!
  11. 11. By. Kamal AL MASRI, based on: Robbins & Coulter, 2016 Why Do People Resist Change? 1. The ambiguity and uncertainty that change introduces. 2. The comfort of old habits. 3. A concern over personal loss of status, money, authority, friendships, and personal convenience (investment already made ). 4. The perception that change is incompatible with the goals and interest of the organization. Copyright © 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. 7- 11
  12. 12. By. Kamal AL MASRI, based on: Robbins & Coulter, 2016 Techniques for Reducing Resistance to Change 1. Education and communication 2. Participation 3. Facilitation and support 4. Negotiation 5. Manipulation and co-optation  to covert attempts to influence others about the change (may involve distorting facts to make the change appear more attractive)! 6. Coercion Copyright © 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. 7- 12
  13. 13. By. Kamal AL MASRI, based on: Robbins & Coulter, 2016 Exhibit 7-5: Techniques for Reducing Resistance to Change Copyright © 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd.
  14. 14. By. Kamal AL MASRI, based on: Robbins & Coulter, 2016 Exhibit 7-5: Techniques for Reducing Resistance to Change (cont.) Copyright © 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd.
  15. 15. By. Kamal AL MASRI, based on: Robbins & Coulter, 2016 Changing Organizational Culture • Cultures are naturally resistant to change. • Conditions that facilitate cultural change: – The occurrence of a dramatic crisis – Leadership changing hands – A young, flexible, and small organization – A weak organizational culture Copyright © 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. 7- 15
  16. 16. By. Kamal AL MASRI, based on: Robbins & Coulter, 2016 Understanding the Situational Factors • 1- Dramatic Crisis: an unexpected financial setback, the loss of a major customer, or a dramatic technological innovation by a competitor. • 2- Leadership changes hands: new top leadership can provide an alternative set of key values. • 3- The organization is young and small. • 4- Culture is weak. Copyright © 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. 7- 16
  17. 17. By. Kamal AL MASRI, based on: Robbins & Coulter, 2016 Exhibit 7-6: Changing Culture Copyright © 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. 7- 17 how do managers change culture
  18. 18. By. Kamal AL MASRI, based on: Robbins & Coulter, 2016 Resources:  Video 01: Why is Organizational Change so Difficult?  Video 02: Muhammad Yunus – Social innovation and the social business model  Video03:  Either: Video Review for Who Moved My Cheese by Spencer Johnson at Or  Who moved my Cheese The Movie (cartoon) by Dr Spencer Johnson
  19. 19. By. Kamal AL MASRI, based on: Robbins & Coulter, 2016  Title:  Description:  1:03 - 1:05  Once long ago, in a land far away,¶  1:05 - 1:08  there lived four little characters who ran through a maze,  1:08 - 1:10  looking for cheese to nourish them,  1:10 - 1:14  and make them happy.  1:14 - 1:17  Two were mice named Sniff and Scurry.  1:17 - 1:20  And two were little people named Hem and Haw.  1:20 - 1:23  As different as the mice and little people were,  1:23 - 1:25  they shared one thing in common:  1:25 - 1:31  every morning they left their homes and raced out into the maze to find their favorite cheese.  1:31 - 1:34  Sniff and Scurry had simple brains, but good instincts.  1:34 - 1:37
  20. 20. By. Kamal AL MASRI, based on: Robbins & Coulter, 2016 Finding the largest wall in Cheese Station N, he writes:  Change Happens: They Keep Moving The Cheese  Anticipate Change: Get Ready For The Cheese To Move  Monitor Change: Smell The Cheese Often So You Know When It Is Getting Old  Adapt To Change Quickly: The Quicker You Let Go Of Old Cheese, The Sooner You Can Enjoy New Cheese  Change: Move With The Cheese  Enjoy Change! Savor The Adventure And Enjoy The Taste Of New Cheese!  Be Ready To Change Quickly And Enjoy It Again: They Keep Moving The Cheese. THE HANDWRITING ON THE WALL
  21. 21. By. Kamal AL MASRI, based on: Robbins & Coulter, 2016

Editor's Notes

  • At one time, the calm waters metaphor was fairly descriptive of the situation managers faced. It’s best discussed using Kurt Lewin’s three-step change process. According to Lewin, successful change can be planned and requires unfreezing the status quo, changing to a new
    state, and refreezing to make the change permanent.

    Increasingly, managers are realizing that the stability and predictability of the calm waters metaphor don’t exist. Disruptions in the status quo are not occasional and temporary, and they are not followed by a return to calm waters. Instead we have our second change metaphor—white-water rapids. Today, any organization that treats change as the occasional disturbance in an otherwise calm and stable world runs a great risk. Too much is changing too fast for an organization or its managers to be complacent.
  • Organizations face change because external and internal factors create the need for change (see Exhibit 7-1).
  • Kurt Lewin’s three-step change process is illustrated by Exhibit 7-2.
  • Most managers, at one point or another, will have to change some things in their workplace.
    We classify these changes as organizational change, which is any alteration of people, structure, or technology.

    Organizational changes often need someone to act as a catalyst and assume the responsibility for managing the change process—that is,
    a change agent. Change agents can be a manager within the organization, but could be a nonmanager—for example, a change specialist from the HR department or even an outside consultant.
  • Managers face three main types of change: structure, technology, and people. Changes in the external environment or in organizational strategies often lead to changes in the organizational structure. Because an organization’s structure is defined by how work gets done and who does it, managers can alter one or both of these structural components.

    Technological changes usually involve the introduction of new equipment, tools, or methods; automation; or computerization. Competitive factors or new innovations within an industry often require managers to introduce new equipment, tools, or operating methods.

    Changing people involves changing attitudes, expectations, perceptions, and behaviors— something that’s not easy to do.
  • Managers face three main types of change: structure, technology, and people as illustrated in Exhibit 7-3.
  • Changing people involves changing attitudes, expectations, perceptions, and behaviors—something that’s not easy to do.
    Organizational development (OD) is the term used to describe change methods that focus on people and the nature and quality of interpersonal work relationships.

    Managers need to recognize that some techniques that work for U.S. organizations may not be appropriate for organizations or organizational divisions based in other countries.
  • The most popular OD techniques are described in Exhibit 7-4.
  • Why do people resist change? The main reasons include uncertainty, habit, concern over personal loss, and the belief that the change is not in the organization’s best interest. Change replaces the known with uncertainty. Another cause of resistance is that we do things out of habit. The third cause of resistance is the fear of losing something already possessed. Change threatens the investment you’ve already made in the status quo. A final cause of resistance is a person’s belief that the change is incompatible with the goals and interests of the organization.
  • Several strategies have been suggested in dealing with resistance to change. These approaches include education and communication, participation, facilitation and support, negotiation, manipulation and co-optation, and coercion.

    Education and communication can help reduce resistance to change by helping employees see the logic of the change effort. This technique, of course, assumes that much of the resistance lies in misinformation or poor communication.

    Participation involves bringing those individuals directly affected by the proposed change into the decision-making process. Their participation allows these individuals to express their feelings, increase the quality of the process, and increase employee commitment to the final decision.

    Facilitation and support involve helping employees deal with the fear and anxiety associated with the change effort. This help may include employee counseling, therapy, new skills training, or a short paid leave of absence.

    Negotiation involves exchanging something of value for an agreement to lessen the resistance to the change effort. This resistance technique may be quite useful when the resistance comes from a powerful source.

    Manipulation and co-optation refer to covert attempts to influence others about the change. It may involve distorting facts to make the change appear more attractive.

    Finally, coercion can be used to deal with resistance to change. Coercion involves the use of direct threats or force against the resisters.
  • When managers see resistance to change as dysfunctional, what can they do? Several strategies have been suggested in dealing with resistance to change. These approaches include education and communication, participation, facilitation and support, negotiation,
    manipulation and co-optation, and coercion. These tactics are summarized and described in Exhibit 7-5.
  • When managers see resistance to change as dysfunctional, what can they do? Several strategies have been suggested in dealing with resistance to change. These approaches include education and communication, participation, facilitation and support, negotiation,
    manipulation and co-optation, and coercion. These tactics are summarized and described in Exhibit 7-5.
  • An organization’s culture, made up of relatively stable and permanent characteristics, tends to make it very resistant to change. A culture takes a long time to form, and once established, it tends to become entrenched. Strong cultures are particularly resistant to change because employees have become so committed to them.

  • What “favorable conditions” facilitate cultural change? One is that a dramatic crisis occurs, such as an unexpected financial setback, the loss of a major customer, or a dramatic technological innovation by a competitor. Such a shock can weaken the status quo and make people start thinking about the relevance of the current culture. Another condition may be that leadership changes hands. New top leadership can provide an alternative set of key values and may be perceived as more capable of responding to the crisis than the old leaders were. Another is that the organization is young and small. The younger the organization, the less entrenched its culture.
  • If conditions are right, how do managers change culture? No single action is likely to have the impact necessary to change something ingrained and highly valued. Managers need a strategy for managing cultural change, as described in Exhibit 7-6.
  • ×