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Microsporidia, ancyclostoma duodenale,necatar amrecanus, toxoplasma gondii

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" PARASITOLOGY AND MYCOLOGY" Organisms (Microsporidia, Anclyclostoma, Duodenale, Nedctar amerecanus, Toxoplasma gondii)

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Microsporidia, ancyclostoma duodenale,necatar amrecanus, toxoplasma gondii

  1. 1. MICROSPORIDIA, ANCYCLOSTOMA DUODENALE,NECATAR AMRECANUS, TOXOPLASMA GONDII Group 4
  2. 2. ANCYLOSTOMA DUODENALE: Ancylostoma duodenale is a species of the roundworm genus Ancylostoma. It is a parasitic nematode worm and commonly known as the Old World hookworm. It lives in the small intestine of hosts such as humans, cats and dogs, where it is able to mate and mature. STRUCTURE: It has two ventral plates Each with large teeth that are fused at their bases.
  3. 3. PATHOGENESIS:
  4. 4. LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS:
  5. 5. TOXOPLASMA GONDII:
  6. 6. MORPHOLOGY: IT HAS THREE MORPHOLOGICAL FORMS:
  7. 7. TRANSMISSION:
  8. 8. LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS:
  9. 9. SEROLOGY:
  10. 10. TREATMENT:
  11. 11. PREVENTION:
  12. 12. MICROSPORIDIA: Microsporidiosis (also known as microsporidiasis) is caused by infection with microsporidia, which are obligately intracellular, spore- forming parasites that belong to the phylum Microspora and the order Microsporida. Microsporidia are eukaryotic organisms.
  13. 13. PATHOPHISIOLOGY: Microsporidia are a group of obligate intracellular protozoa with more than 1,200 species belonging to 143 genera that infect a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts.  They are characterized by the production of resistant spores that vary in size, depending on the species.
  14. 14. REPRODUCTION: Microsporidia may reproduce sexually or asexually. In asexual reproduction, nuclear division takes place and form one or more pairs of nuclei, and cellular division may isolate the nuclei or pair them in a diplokaryon arrangement.
  15. 15. MICROSPORIDIOSIS: These spores cause microsporidiosis, a disease that is primarily seen in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), although it can rarely also cause disease in individuals with a normal immune system. Microsporidia are found worldwide, and there are numerous vertebrates and invertebrates that can serve as hosts for this parasite. Microsporidiosis can cause infection of the intestine, lung, kidney, brain, sinuses, muscles, and eyes
  16. 16. TRANSMISSION: Microsporidia spores are released from the stool, respiratory secretions, and urine of infected animals. A number of animals, including insects, birds, and mammals, can serve as reservoirs of infection for microsporidia.  Transmission of these spores is thought to occur primarily via ingestion or inhalation by humans, though the process is not perfectly understood. Studies have also suggested that water-borne and food-borne transmission may be possibl
  17. 17. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: Lung symptoms may include: Cough labored breathing malabsorption inflammation, fluid, or cavities in the lungs.
  18. 18. LAB DIAGNOSIS: There are several tests available to diagnose microsporidia infection.  Microscopic examination of stained samples of body fluids, primarily fecal samples, allows for rapid diagnosis, although the exact species of microsporidia may not be identified. Urine samples can also be used to detect spores when the kidney and/or bladder are involved. A powerful microscope, called a transmission electron microscope, is needed to identify the exact species of microsporidia.
  19. 19. TREATMENT: Treatment is with:  albendazole or fumagillin (depending on the infecting species and clinical syndrome) topical fumagillin and oral albendazole for eye disease.
  20. 20. REFERENCES: https://images.app.goo.gl/pST7WSWavGe8pSwG9 https://images.app.goo.gl/m7udNtMEZhJdqSDy6 https://images.app.goo.gl/yf9HJDr4ybFw7zPcA https://images.app.goo.gl/mB5xNqXSAyUgwy5W9 https://images.app.goo.gl/Rq2aiGGWgtFxhzcH6 https://images.app.goo.gl/kaduaS69BYrQhXhAA

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