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Pathophysiology of HIV AIDS Slide 1 Pathophysiology of HIV AIDS Slide 2 Pathophysiology of HIV AIDS Slide 3 Pathophysiology of HIV AIDS Slide 4 Pathophysiology of HIV AIDS Slide 5 Pathophysiology of HIV AIDS Slide 6 Pathophysiology of HIV AIDS Slide 7 Pathophysiology of HIV AIDS Slide 8 Pathophysiology of HIV AIDS Slide 9 Pathophysiology of HIV AIDS Slide 10 Pathophysiology of HIV AIDS Slide 11 Pathophysiology of HIV AIDS Slide 12 Pathophysiology of HIV AIDS Slide 13 Pathophysiology of HIV AIDS Slide 14 Pathophysiology of HIV AIDS Slide 15 Pathophysiology of HIV AIDS Slide 16 Pathophysiology of HIV AIDS Slide 17 Pathophysiology of HIV AIDS Slide 18 Pathophysiology of HIV AIDS Slide 19 Pathophysiology of HIV AIDS Slide 20 Pathophysiology of HIV AIDS Slide 21
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Pathophysiology of HIV AIDS

This PPT cover the Pathophysiology of HIV AIDS. It includes mode of transmission, HIV Virus replication, symptoms, diagnosis and precaution

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Pathophysiology of HIV AIDS

  1. 1. PREPARED BY: JEGAN. S. NADAR AIDS
  2. 2. HIV/AIDS  HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus.  It harms the immune system by destroying the white blood cells that fight infection.  This leads to serious infections and certain cancers.  AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.  It is the final stage of infection with HIV.  Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. Jegan
  3. 3.  HIV is a virus spread through certain body fluids that attacks the body’s immune system, specifically the CD4 cells (T cells).  These special cells help the immune system fight off infections  Over time, HIV destroys so many of these cells that the body can’t fight off infections and disease.  Untreated, HIV reduces the number of CD4 cells in the body.  This damage to the immune system makes it harder and harder for the body to fight off infections and some other diseases.  Opportunistic infections or cancers take advantage of a very weak immune system and signal that the person has AIDS Jegan
  4. 4. AIDS  AIDS is a disease caused by HIV.  It’s the most advanced stage of HIV.  HIV destroys T cells called CD4 cells. These cells helps immune system fight infections.  Healthy adults generally have a CD4 count of 800 to 1,000 per cubic millimeter. In AIDS CD4 count falls below 200 per cubic millimeter  AIDS weakens immune system to the point where it can no longer fight off most diseases and infections Jegan
  5. 5. MODE OF TRANSMISSION  HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with an infected person.  It may also spread by sharing drug needles or through contact with the blood of an infected person.  Women can give it to their babies during pregnancy or childbirth. Jegan
  6. 6. HIV VIRUS REPLICATION 1. Binding 2. Fusion 3. Reverse Transcription 4. Integration 5. Replication 6. Assembly 7. Budding Jegan
  7. 7. BINDING  Proteins, called envelope proteins, embedded in the outer membrane of the HIV virion bind to receptors on the surface of target cells.  T-cells (white blood cells) have CD4 and CCR5 receptors to which HIV can bind. Jegan
  8. 8. FUSION  Binding of the HIV envelope protein to CD4 and CCR5 allows the HIV-1 outer membrane to fuse with the cell’s outer membrane  HIV RNA, reverse transcriptase, integrase and other viral proteins enter the cell. Jegan
  9. 9. REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION  Once inside a CD4 cell, HIV releases and uses reverse transcriptase (an HIV enzyme) to convert its genetic material—HIV RNA—into HIV DNA.  The conversion of HIV RNA to HIV DNA allows HIV to enter the CD4 cell nucleus and combine with the cell’s genetic material—cell DNA. Jegan
  10. 10. INTEGRATION  The viral DNA enters the nucleus of the host and becomes integrated into the host’s DNA.  An enzyme called integrase is key in this process.  Once the viral DNA has integrated into the cell’s DNA, the cell is infected for the remainder of its life.  The integrated viral DNA is now referred to as a provirus. Jegan
  11. 11. REPLICATION  The provirus DNA serves as a template for the creation of new viral RNA via a process known as transcription  The newly formed viral RNA moves out of the infected cell’s nucleus.  The viral RNA carries code for the synthesis of viral proteins and enzymes.  The code is translated into long chains of amino-acids, known as a polypeptide chains, which fold to form the protein and enzyme components of new virus particles. Jegan
  12. 12. ASSEMBLY  Components that are required to build new virus particles, namely viral proteins, enzymes and genetic material (viral RNA) move to the cell’s outer membrane where they accumulate and assemble in the form of a bud.  A variety of host cell proteins are recruited to assist in virus assembly. Jegan
  13. 13. BUDDING  Host-cell proteins cut the virus bud from the cell’s outer membrane, thereby releasing a new virus particle Jegan
  14. 14. Jegan
  15. 15. SYMPTOMS  Headaches and other aches and pains  Fatigue  Skin rashes  Oral infections  Pneumonia  Nausea, vomiting  Persistent diarrhea  Weight loss Jegan
  16. 16. DIAGNOSIS  ELISA Test  NAT test (Nucleic acid test)  Western blot test  Saliva test Jegan
  17. 17. TREATMENT  Anti-Retroviral Therapy Jegan
  18. 18. Jegan
  19. 19. Jegan
  20. 20. Jegan
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This PPT cover the Pathophysiology of HIV AIDS. It includes mode of transmission, HIV Virus replication, symptoms, diagnosis and precaution

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