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Pharmaceutical microbiology (unit 1)

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INTRODUCTION AND HISTORY OF MICROBIOLOGY, HISTORY, CULTURE MEDIA

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Pharmaceutical microbiology (unit 1)

  1. 1. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY (UNIT 1) HIMANSHU KAMBOJ ASSISTANT PROFESSOR GGSCOP, YNR(HR)
  2. 2. Microbiology Contents • Introduction • History of microbiology
  3. 3. Unit-1
  4. 4. What is Microbiology? Microbes, or microorganisms are minute living things that are usually unable to be viewed with the naked eye. What are some examples of microbes? Bacteria, fungi, protozoa, algae, viruses are examples! Some are pathogenic “Germ” refers to a rapidly growing cell.
  5. 5. Microbes (benefits): • Decompose organic waste • Are producers in the ecosystem by photosynthesis • Produce industrial chemicals such as ethyl alcohol and acetone • Produce fermented foods such as vinegar, cheese, and bread
  6. 6. • Knowledge of Microbes allows humans to Prevent food spoilage • Prevent disease occurrence • Led to aseptic techniques to prevent contamination in medicine and in microbiology laboratories.
  7. 7. History of Microbiology Ancestors of bacteria were the first life on Earth.
  8. 8. History of Microbiology The first microbes were observed in 1673. In 1665, Robert Hooke (Englishman) reported that living things were composed of little boxes or cells. Developed Compound microscope • 1st to coin the term ‘Cell’
  9. 9. History of Microbiology 1673-1723, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (Dutch) described live microorganisms that he observed in teeth scrapings, rain water, and peppercorn infusions.
  10. 10. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek [1632-1723]: • 1st to observe and describe single celled organisms, “animalcules”, we now refer to as microorganisms. • Described different morphological forms of bacteria • 1st to record observations of muscle fibers, bacteria, spermatozoa and blood flow in capillaries (small blood vessels).
  11. 11. History of Microbiology Many believed spontaneous generation: life can arise from non-living matter In 1668, the Italian physician Francesco Redi performed an experiment to disprove spontaneous generation.
  12. 12. History of Microbiology Redi filled six jars with decaying meat. Conditions Results 3 jars covered with No maggots fine net 3 open jars Maggots appeared
  13. 13. Redi placed meat in three containers. One was uncovered, a second was covered with paper, and the third was covered with fine gauze that would exclude flies. Flies laid their eggs on the uncovered meat and maggots developed. The other two pieces of meat did not produce maggots spontaneously.
  14. 14. Read up on the historical contribution(s) of microbiology made by: John Needem (1713-1781) Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799) Theodore Schwann (1810-1882) Theodorvon Dusch (1824-1890)
  15. 15. History of Microbiology 1861: Louis Pasteur demonstrated that microorganisms are present in the air. Conditions Results Nutrient broth placed Microbial growth in flask, heated, not sealed Nutrient broth placed No microbial growth
  16. 16. • Pasteur first filtered air through cotton and found that objects resembling plant spores had been trapped. • If a piece of the cotton was placed in sterile medium after air had been filtered through it, microbial growth occurred. • Next he placed nutrients solutions in flasks, heated their necks in a flame, and drew them out into a variety of curves. Pasteur experiment–
  17. 17. The swan neck flasks that he produced in this way had necks open to the atmosphere. Pasteur then boiled the solutions for a few minutes and allowed them to cool. No growth took place even though the contents of the flasks were exposed to the air. Pasteur pointed out that no growth occurred because dust and germs had been trapped on the walls of the curved necks. If the neck were broken, growth commenced immediately.
  18. 18. • Established that Fermentation was caused by microbial agents • Demonstrated anaerobic fermentation by both bacteria and yeasts (bacteria produce acid and yeast produce alcohol) • Developed pasteurization to prevent spoilage of wine by bacteria • Noted that different types of fermentations were associated with different kinds of microbes • Development of methods and techniques of Bacteriology • proved that microbes arise only from their like • Introduction of sterilization techniques: development of steam sterilizer, autoclave and hot-air oven
  19. 19. History of Microbiology Pasteur’s S-shaped flask kept microbes out but let air in. These experiments form the basis of aseptic technique
  20. 20. The Golden Age of Microbiology (1857-1914) Beginning with Pasteur’s work, discoveries included the relationship between microbes and disease, microbes and fermentation, immunity, and antimicrobial drugs. Pasteur showed that microbes are responsible for fermentation (Germ theory of fermentation). Fermentation is the conversation of sugar to alcohol to make beer and wine. Microbial growth is also responsible for spoilage of food. Bacteria that use alcohol and produce acetic acid spoil wine by turning it to vinegar (acetic acid).
  21. 21. History of Microbiology Pasteur demonstrated that these spoilage bacteria could be killed by heat that was not hot enough to evaporate the alcohol in wine. This application of a high heat for a short time is called pasteurization.
  22. 22. The Germ Theory of Disease 1835: Agostino Bassi showed a silkworm disease was caused by a fungus. 1865: Pasteur believed that another silkworm disease was caused by a protozoan. 1840s: Ignaz Semmelwise advocated handwashing to prevent transmission of puerperal fever from one ob patient to another.
  23. 23. The Germ Theory of Disease • 1860s: Joseph Lister (1827-1912) used a chemical disinfectant to prevent surgical wound infections after looking at Pasteur’s work showing microbes are in the air, can spoil food, and cause animal diseases. • Father of Antiseptic surgery • Professor of surgery • Applied Pasteur’s work and introduced Antiseptic techniques in Surgery • Use of Carbolic acid in Antiseptic surgery • Resulted in drop in morbidity and mortality due to surgical sepsis
  24. 24. 1876: Robert Koch (1843-1910) provided proof that a bacterium causes anthrax and provided the experimental steps, Koch’s postulates, used to prove that a specific microbe causes a specific disease. Father of Bacteriology • Introduced methods for isolation of pure culture • use of solid media for isolation of bacteria • Staining techniques • discovered Anthrax bacillus (1876), Tubercle bacillus (1882) and cholera vibrios (1883)
  25. 25. Koch's Postulates are used to prove the cause of an infectious disease. Koch's Postulates are a sequence of experimental steps to relate a specific microbe to a specific disease.
  26. 26.  A young milkmaid informed the physician EDWARD JENNER that she could not get smallpox because she had already been sick from cowpox.  1796: EDWARD JENNER inoculated a person with cowpox virus. The person was then protected from smallpox.  Called vaccination from vacca for cow the protection is called immunity  Observed that the milk maids who had milder form of cowpox were not prone to smallpox.  After observing cases of cowpox and smallpox for few years, in 1796 he removed the fluid of a cowpox from milkmaid and inoculated JAMES PHIPPS, an eight-year-old boy, who soon came down with cowpox.  Six weeks later, he inoculated the boy with smallpox. The boy remained healthy.  Jenner had proved his theory that the pus in the blisters which milkmaids received
  27. 27. Chemotherapy – treatment with chemicals • Chemotherapeutic agents used to treat infectious disease can be synthetic drugs or antibiotics. • Antibiotics are chemicals produced by bacteria and fungi that inhibit or kill other microbes. • Quinine from tree bark was long used to treat malaria.
  28. 28. 1928: Alexander Fleming discovered the first antibiotic. He observed that Penicillium fungus made an antibiotic, penicillin, that killed S. aureus (bacteria). 1940s: Penicillin was tested clinically and mass produced. Left his Staphylococcus culture on an agar plate for 2 weeks → went on vacation → came back & found mold on his plate which prevented bacterial growth
  29. 29. “ ” THANK YOU

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