Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Upcoming SlideShare
What to Upload to SlideShare
What to Upload to SlideShare
Loading in …3
×
1 of 92

Forensic osteology

14

Share

Forensic Osteology PPT

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Related Audiobooks

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Forensic osteology

  1. 1. DR. ARIF MASOOD PRINCIPAL& PROFESSOR ANANYA COLLEG OF HOMOEOPATHY, KALOL , GANDHINAGAR FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY
  2. 2. OSTEOLOGY
  3. 3. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY  Forensic osteology is a sub-specialty of forensic medicine and deals with examination and assessment of human skeleton.  The assessment includes both — the identification of the victim’s characteristics and cause and manner of death from skeleton
  4. 4. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY  Whenever whole or partial skeleton or bundle of bones are submitted by legal authorities for medical examination then medical examiner should be able to answer following questions  1. Are they bones?  2. Are they human bones?  3. What is the sex?  4. What would be age at the time of death?  5. What is the stature?  6. What is the race?  7. How identity could be established?  8. What would be time since death?  9. What was the cause of death?  10. What is the manner of separation?
  5. 5. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY  Bone or Not  It is necessary to examine a given article and opine whether the stated article is bone or not. The following description will help in evolving the answer.  • Gross examination of bone: Examination of bone in respect to shape, size, texture, weight and morphology with established anatomical landmark will reveal true nature  • Microscopic examination: Microscopic examination of bone will reveal true Haversian system and presence of osteons
  6. 6. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY
  7. 7. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY  • Microscopic examination: Microscopic examination may provide differentiation feature or at least helps to exclude a human origin. The Haversian system is different in animals than human. Haversian systems and canals are of larger diameter in humans than animals.  • Serological examination: Precipitin test can be done by extracting species-specific protein from bone into solution and tested against specific antisera of human. The techniques such as electrophoresis or gel diffusion can now identify human tissue.
  8. 8. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY  Sex of Bone  Sex from bone is determined by  • Morphological examination  • Morphometry or osteometry i.e. by taking various measurements of bone  • Multivariate discrimination function analysis  According to Krogman, the sexing from skeleton and individual bones are given in Table 4.1. General sex difference of skeleton is provided in Table 4.2. Sex can also be determined from soft parts available with bones by:  • Demonstration of Y-chromosome  • DNA profiling
  9. 9. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY - SEX
  10. 10. Information from skeletal remains Sex of decedent CHE 113 10
  11. 11. Information from skeletal remains Sex of decedent CHE 113 11 MALE OR FEMALE SKELETON? (a) IS FEMALE and (b) IS MALE Handout
  12. 12. Information from skeletal remains Sex of decedent CHE 113 12 MALE OR FEMALE SKELETON? (a) IS FEMALE and (b) IS MALE Male Female
  13. 13. Information from skeletal remains Sex of decedent CHE 113 13
  14. 14. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY - AGE Age at the time of death from bone/skeleton is determined by noting the: • Dental status • Ossification data – the appearance and fusion of ossification centers • Age related changes occurring in individual bones • Radiographic method • Histological method – it is observed that size and shape of osteons increases with age. The relation between osteons and age is presented in table 4.3. Rai had derived a regression equation for estimation of age. The equation is – Age = number of osteons + 8.3.
  15. 15. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY - STATURE  Stature  Determination of stature from bone means estimation of body height of that person. For estimation of stature, long bones are widely preferred and are more reliable than flat or irregular bones. The length of bone is taken with the help of Hepburn osteometric board (Fig. 4.4).  When stature is estimated from a bone, an allowance of 2.5 to 4 cm is added to the calculated stature in order to compensate the loss of soft tissues. (The total thickness of the soft tissues in between the bones at different joint from heel to vertex is about 2.5 to 4 cm)
  16. 16. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY
  17. 17. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY - STATURE  Different formulae are used to estimate stature and includes • Karl Pearson • Trotter and Glesser • Dupertuis and Haden • Pan • Nat • Shah and Siddiqui  If fragmented long bones are submitted for medical examination, stature can be estimated by following formulae: • Muller • Steele • Steele and McKern
  18. 18. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY - RACE Race • Determination of race is difficult from bones, partly because racial traits are not so marked and partly because so much ethnic mixing has taken place  Amongst bones, skull offers better evidence regarding race and according to Krogman and Iscan, race can be determined in 90 to 95% of cases.
  19. 19. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – TIME SINCE DEATH Time Since Death Time since death is determined by analyzing: • Gross examination of bones and/with state of soft tissue available • Stage of healing in case of fracture • Physical tests • Chemical tests
  20. 20. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – TIME SINCE DEATH  Gross Examining  • Recent bones will have soft tissue attached in form of ligaments and/or tendons, especially at or near joints.  Periosteum may be visible so do the cartilage especially over articular surface. Such bones may emit putrid smell.  The bones will be soft, moist and greasy to touch
  21. 21. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – TIME SINCE DEATH  Gross Examining  •The recent bones, on sawing, will be hard and uniform through the whole thickness. In old bones, the bones become lighter due to loss of organic matter and collagenous stroma. On sawing, the outer cortex and to a lesser extent, the zone around marrow cavity will loose stroma first so a “sandwich” effect may be seen in which a central ring of hard collagenous bone is layered on each side by a zone of more porous crumbling material  Due to wear and tear, the ends of long bone may be fragile and brittle
  22. 22. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – TIME SINCE DEATH
  23. 23. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – TIME SINCE DEATH
  24. 24. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – TIME SINCE DEATH  Stage of Fracture Healing (Fig. 4.8)  Examination of stage of fracture healing offers help in dating time since death. Stages of healing of fracture are  A. Stage of hematoma formation  B. Stage of Granulation tissue formation  C. Stage of Callus formation  D. Stage of Remodelling  E. Stage of Modelling
  25. 25. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY
  26. 26. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – TIME SINCE DEATH  Physical Test  • After sawing, if the cut surface of bone is examined under ultraviolet light, recent bone will be fluorescence (shine) with a silvery-blue tint across the whole cut surface. With advancing age, the outer rim and rim around the marrow cavity will cease to fluorescence (due to loss of organic matter) and this progressively deepens towards center. In older bones, the surface will be non-fluorescent (Fig. 4.9).  The total time taken for loss of complete fluorescence was estimated somewhere at 100 to 150 years
  27. 27. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – TIME SINCE DEATH  Physical Test
  28. 28. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – TIME SINCE DEATH  Chemical and Serological Test  • Benzidine test or Kastel-Mayer test may be positive up to 100 years. These test detects presence of blood (Fig. 4.10).  • Serological test such as precipitation test, gel diffusion or Coombs reagent may be positive for 5 to 10 years  • Presence of nitrogen – fresh bones have 4.5% nitrogen. With bone become older, it progressively loses nitrogen. If the nitrogen content is about 4% then the death interval may be up to 100 years. At about 350 years, the nitrogen content falls to 2.5% or less.
  29. 29. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – TIME SINCE DEATH Benzidine test or Kastel-Mayer test
  30. 30. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – TIME SINCE DEATH  Chemical and Serological Test
  31. 31. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – TIME SINCE DEATH
  32. 32. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – CAUSE OF DEATH  Cause of Death  Up to some extent, cause of death can be offered based on following features:  • Any injury/fracture incompatible with life  • Presence of foreign body – bullet, pellets or any piece of weapon  • Chemical analysis for poison  • Radiological examination for and pathology/disease/malignancy/secondaries
  33. 33. Osteology: study of skeletal remains CHE 113 33 Each bone studied INDIVIDUALLY 206 Skeletal Bones (total)
  34. 34. Theskull is abony structure which serves asthe general framework for the head.The skull supports the structures of the face and protects the head against injury. The skull can be subdivided into two parts: the cranium and the mandible.
  35. 35. SKULL The features that indicate sex are : • General appearance • Supra orbital ridges • Orbits • Glabella • Zygomatic arches • Mastoid processes • External occipital protuberance • Mandible • Palate
  36. 36. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – SKULL  SKULL – Sex Determination from Skull  Sex from the skull is determined by morphological examination and by doing craniometry. Table 4.4 provides differences between male and females
  37. 37. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – SKULL  SKULL – Sex Determination from Skull  Sex from the skull is determined by morphological examination and by doing craniometry. Table 4.4 provides differences between male and females
  38. 38. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – SKULL - Sex Determination CHE 113 41
  39. 39. This is the region directly above the orbit and nose, or the "brow ridge“. Less pronounced=female More pronounced=male Supraorbital ridges
  40. 40. ROUNDISH WITH SHARP MARGINS MALE FEMALE SQUARISH WITH ROUNDISH MARGINS ORBITS
  41. 41. The frontal bone (forehead) of males tends to be slanted back and on females it tends to be more rounded
  42. 42. GLABELLA WELL DEVELOPED ILL DEVELOPED MALE FEMALE
  43. 43. Zygomatic arches In females, the zygomatic arch is less pronounced, and tends to not extend posteriorly beyond the external auditory meatus. In males, the zygomatic arch is more pronounced or robust, and tends to extend posteriorly beyond the external auditory meatus.
  44. 44. MASTOID PROCESSES The mastoid processes are located on the inferior portion of the temporal bone, just posterior to the external auditory meatus.
  45. 45. EXTERNAL OCCIPITAL PROTUBERANCE
  46. 46. MALE FEMALE
  47. 47. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – SKULL - Stature Determination Stature Stature from skull can be estimated by performing somatometry. Following are the various formulas for estimating stature from skull. 1. Height of skull × 8 = stature • Eight times the height of skull will give approximate height of the individual • Height of skull is measured from basion to the bregma Basion is the point where the anterior margin of foramen magnum meets the mid- sagittal plane. 2. From regression equation7 • Stature in male = (diameter + circumference of skull) × 1.35 + 70.6 (S.E. = 6.96 cm) • Stature in female = Circumference of skull × 1.28 + 87.8
  48. 48. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – SKULL - Race Determination Race Race can be determined from morphological features and cephalic index Cephalic Index Cephalic index (CI) is measured as follows. C.I. = Maximum breadth of skull × 100 ÷ Maximum length of skull.
  49. 49. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – SKULL - Age Determination .Age Age from the skull can be determined by studying the: • Closure of fontanelle • Fusion of bone • Suture closure • Secondary changes occurred in skull.
  50. 50. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – SKULL - Age Determination .Closure of Fontanelles (Fig. 4.14) • Lateral and occipital fontanelle closed within two months • Posterior fontanelle closes at 6– 8 months after birth • Anterior fontanelle closes at 1.5–2 years after birth
  51. 51. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – SKULL - Age Determination . Fusion of Bone • At the end of second year of life, squamous part of occipital bone unites with condylar part • Squamous portion of occipital bone fuses with the basilar part at 6th year
  52. 52. CHE 113 56 FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – SKULL
  53. 53. CHE 113 57 Age at Death
  54. 54. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – SKULL - Age Determination . Suture Closure Skull bones are united by sutures and the union is analogous with the epiphseal-diaphyseal union. Epiphseal-diaphyseal union begins centrally and proceeds peripherally; similarly suture closure begins endocranially and precedes ectocranially. In other words, union begins first endocranially and then ectocranially. Before proceeding further, some terminology needs attention • Lapsed union is the incomplete union in the sense that the process of fusion has begun but has not gone to completion • Precocious closure is the closure of suture before the age of seven years. At this age the cranial growth is about 95 percent complete Premature closure is closure after the age of 7 years but considerably before the usual or normal age of closure • Vault sutures are – sagittal, coronal and lambdoid suture • Circummeatal sutures are – sphenotemporal, parietomastoid, masto-occipital and squamous suture • Basal suture is spheno-occipital
  55. 55. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – SKULL - Age Determination . Suture Closure
  56. 56. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – SKULL - Age Determination . Pattern of Closure • Sagittal suture unites evenly from front to back • Coronal suture fuses from medial to lateral end • Lambdoid suture fuses from medial to lateral end • No difference exist between right and left sides of skull • No sex difference in fusion of suture • According to Krogman, vault suture fuses between 17 to 50years whereas circummeatal suture closes above 50 years
  57. 57. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – SKULL - Age Determination . Age of Fusion Here it is important to note that aging an individual solely on suture closure will be unsafe exercise because the method is not reliable. McKern and Stewart had concluded that suture closure has only a general relationship with age. So erratic is the onset and progress of closure that an adequate series will provide just about any pattern at any age level.1 The age provided by this method is in range of decade. Due to phenomenon of lapsed union, which is found frequently ectocranially, therefore more reliance should be placed on endocranial closure. after McKern and Stewart) (Fig. 4.15). • Metopic suture closes at 2 to 4 years • Sagittal – 30 to 40 years • Coronal – 40 to 50 years • Lambdoid – 40 to 50 years • Sphenotemporal – 50 to 60 years • Parietomastoid – 80 to 90 years • Masto-occipital – 80 to 90 years • Squamous – above 80 years
  58. 58. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – SKULL - Age Determination . Age of Fusion
  59. 59. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – MANDIBLE SEX DETERMINATION
  60. 60. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – MANDIBLE SEX DETERMINATION
  61. 61. Themandible together with the maxilla, the largest and strongest bone of the face . It forms the lower jaw and holds the lower teeth in place.
  62. 62. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – SKULL - Age Determination . Secondary Changes in Skull • Texture – (after Todd 1939 and Cobb 1952) the texture of a young adult skull is smooth and ivorine on both surfaces. At about 40 ± 5 years, the skull surface begins to assume “matted, granular and rough appearance”. • Markings on skull – after the age of 25 year onwards the muscular markings become increasingly evident. The markings are – temporal line, nuchal lines, and masseteric attachment on side of mandible. • After 50 years, the diploe becomes less vascular with increasing replacement by bone. • The grooves for middle meningeal artery becomes deeper • Thickness of skull – (after Todd 1924) the thickness of skull increases with age. The increase in thickness is more after 50 years up to 60 years with no decrease thereafter. • Increase in skull size – (after Israel 1967 and 1968) on lateral skull radiograph, Israel noted increase in skull size with increase in skull thickness and skull diameter with advancing age.
  63. 63. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – MANDIBLE SEX DETERMINATION . Sex The differences between male and female in mandible are described in the table below
  64. 64. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – MANDIBLE STATURE & RACE DETERMINATION Stature The distance between symphysis menti and angle of mandible is taken and is multiplied by 16, which will give stature. Stature = length from mandibulr angle to symphysis menti × 16. Race According to Schultz (1933) mandible in white people have • Larger breadth, • Higher and narrower ramus • Greater gonial angle • Ramal surface more parallel to the median sagittal plane • Protrusive chin • Mental tubercles placed more lateral in position
  65. 65. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – MANDIBLE RACE DETERMINATION RACE:- According to Schultz (1933) mandible in black people have • Lower, wider and more vertical ramus • Greater dental arch length i.e. a long “U” shaped dental arch • Small breadth • Less prominent chin • Mental tubercles are placed more medial in position and are smaller
  66. 66. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – MANDIBLE AGE DETERMINATION Age The mandible shows remarkable changes with age. Following are the age related changes in mandible (Fig. 4.18). At Birth • Two halves of mandible are united by fibrous symphysis menti • Body is shell like with imperfectly separated sockets of deciduous teeth • Mandibular canal is near the lower border • Mental foramen opens below the first deciduous molar • Mental foramen is directed forwards • Coronoid process projects above the condyle.
  67. 67. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – MANDIBLE AGE DETERMINATION At 1-3 Years • At first year, two halves joins at symphysis from below upwards with separation at alveolar margin – may persist into second year • Body elongates behind mental foramen • During first and second years, chin develops • Condylar cartilage is covered on articular aspect by fibrous tissue • Body height increases, alveolar growth make place for root of teeth • The sub-alveolar region (area) becomes thicker and deeper At 6 Years • Mandible increase in size • Remodelling continuous with bone added at posterior border of ramus. Adults • Alveolar and sub-alveolar areas are about equal in depth (size) • Mental foramen midway between upper and lower border • Mandibular canal nearly parallels the mylohyoid line • Ramal height increase • The condyloid process is at a higher level than the coronoid process.
  68. 68. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – MANDIBLE AGE DETERMINATION Old Age • Bone is reduced in size • Alveolar region is absorbed. Absorption affects mainly the thinner alveolar part and after completion of absorption, a linear alveolar ridge is left at the superior border of mandible • Mandibular canal near to superior border • Mental foramen near to superior border • Ramus become oblique, the angle is about 140 degree • Neck is inclined backwards
  69. 69. Themale mandible tends to have a “square” shape. Mandible of female tends to have a pointed chin. Chin (anterior mandible)
  70. 70. Mandible in the male is closer to a right angle than the female. In the female, the ramus is an obtuse angle to the lower jaw bone, i.e., greater than 90 degrees. The ramus in the male is wider and larger. RAMUS (rear of the mandible) MALE FEMALE
  71. 71. LARGER,WIDER AND BROADER SMALLER AND NARROWER PALATE MALE FEMALE
  72. 72. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – FEMUR SEX DETERMINATION SEX BY FEMUR Table presents sex differences between male and female femur bone
  73. 73. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – FEMUR SEX DETERMINATION SEX BY FEMUR
  74. 74. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – FEMUR AGE DETERMINATION Age Age estimation from femur can be done by noting following changes. • Ossification events • Radiographic changes
  75. 75. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – FEMUR AGE DETERMINATION Ossification Event Table 4.9 provides ossification centers with their appearance and fusion in male and female
  76. 76. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – FEMUR AGE DETERMINATION Ossification Event Table 4.9 provides ossification centers with their appearance and fusion in male and female
  77. 77. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – FEMUR AGE DETERMINATION Radiographic age determination from the proximal epiphyses of femur – radiographs of the proximal end of femur show the progressive proximal-ward extension of medullary cavity as age advances and the features are more obvious in age ranges of 31.4 to 67.8 year. Acsadi and Nemeskeri (1970) divided the changes into five phases. The phases are described below and the correlation with age is presented in Table 4.10.
  78. 78. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – FEMUR AGE DETERMINATION • Phase 1: Apex of the medullary cavity below the lesser trochanter. Texture of trabeculae is thick. • Phase 2: Apex of medullary cavity reaches or surpasses the lower limit of lesser trochanter • Phase 3: Apex of medullary cavity reaches the upper limit of the lesser trochanter • Phase 4: Apex of the medullary cavity extends above the upper limit of lesser trochanter • Phase 5: Apex of medullary cavity extends beyond the upper limit of lesser trochanter. A cavity of 3 mm diameter is formed in the greater trochanter. Cavity appears in the head beneath fovea capitis and at the medial and later border • Phase 6: Cavities in medial part of neck merges with medullary cavity. Cavities formed in neck and greater trochanter gets enlarged.
  79. 79. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – FEMUR RACE DETERMINATION Race Race from femur can be determined from • Morphological features • Bone length • Index Morphological Features Stewart (1962) and Walensky (1965) studied the femur in respect with the anterior curvature and they have noted that: • In Black people the femur are much straighter • In White people the femur are bowed forward • In American Indians, the femur has greater anterior curvature and a more distal positioning of the point of maximum curvature.
  80. 80. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – FEMUR RACE DETERMINATION Race Bone Length Table 4.11 shows racial variation in femur bone length in American blacks and whites (after Krogman 1955). Male bones are longer than female bones and slightly longer in Blacks than in Whites.
  81. 81. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – FEMUR RACE DETERMINATION Race Index Following are the indices frequently used to determine race.Table 4.12 provides information regarding indices and Table 4.13 provides value of indices in various races. • Crural index • Intermembral index • Humoro-femoral index
  82. 82. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – FEMUR STATURE DETERMINATION Stature Stature of an individual can be estimated from femur. The length of bone is taken and is multiplied with multiplication factor i.e. length of femur × multiplication factor = stature. Different formulas and multiplication factors are available such as Karl Pearson formula for Europeans, Trotter and Glesser formula for American persons. In India, various researchers of different states have evolved multiplication factor to estimate stature. Table 4.14 presents multiplication factor. Following account shows the authors and study states. • Pan – for residents of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa • Nat – for residents of Uttar Pradesh • Shah and Siddiqui – for residents of Punjab • Singh and Shoha – for residents of East Punjab • Mehta and Thomas – for residents of Mysore
  83. 83. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – FEMUR STATURE DETERMINATION
  84. 84. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – TIBIA SEX DETERMINATION Sex by Tibia can determine by following
  85. 85. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – TIBIA STATURE DETERMINATION
  86. 86. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – TIBIA RACE DETERMINATION Race Race is determined from Crural and Intermembral index. Age Table 4.17 provides ossification centers with their appearance and fusion in male and female
  87. 87. FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY – TIBIA STATURE DETERMINATION

×