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Graphic Design andThe IndustrialRevolution
England                          1760 –                           1840                              Extreme              ...
•   Graphic communications – more important & accessible.• Photography was invented.• Fast expansion of jobbing printers, ...
Mechanization of                  Typography•   Mid 19th century – presses could mass produce up to    25000 copies per ho...
Photography•   Joseph Niepce – Frenchman    who produced the 1st    photographic image.•    He coated a pewter sheet with ...
•   After a long process of experimenting and collaboration    with Louis Jacques Daguerre – perfected process in 1839.•  ...
Photography as  Reportage        •   1st occurrence of            reportage photography            – American Civil War.  ...
Victorian   Era 1849 – Queen Victoria’s husband conceived the idea of a    grand exhibition with hundreds of exhibitors fr...
Chromolithography•   Lithography = a method of printing using an etching    stone on a completely smooth surface.•   Chrom...
•   Circuses and carnivals first to use these new methods    for their posters.•   Chromolithography was then moved onto l...
Battle of the          Signboards•   Mid 19th century – letterpress poster &    broadsheet were challenged by more visual ...
Images for Children•   Pre-Victorian Era – children were treated like    adults.•   Victorians began to treat them more te...
Rise of AmericanEditorial & Advertising        Design           •   James & John Harper               launched a printing ...
Victorian Typography•   In the Victorian Era, the taste for ornate    elaboration was a major influence.•   Outlandish and...
The End.
Graphic design and the industrial revolution new
Graphic design and the industrial revolution new
Graphic design and the industrial revolution new
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Graphic design and the industrial revolution new

  1. 1. Graphic Design andThe IndustrialRevolution
  2. 2. England 1760 – 1840  Extreme social/econom ic change.  Steam engine perfected = greater productivity. Technological improvement - mass production - increased availability & lower costs.
  3. 3. • Graphic communications – more important & accessible.• Photography was invented.• Fast expansion of jobbing printers, advertising & posters.• Advancements in font types & sizes – problems for printing.• 1800 – Charles Stanhope invented the printing press which reduced required manual force and could print a sheet double the conventional size.• John Walter II & Friedrich Koening created 2 double-cylinder steam powered press – used to print The Times.• 1815 – William Cowper & Ambrose Applegath developed the 4 cylinder steam-powdered press.
  4. 4. Mechanization of Typography• Mid 19th century – presses could mass produce up to 25000 copies per hour – but each letter had to be set by hand = limited newspapers.• Advancements in technology – machine set typography printed on machine made paper. The first steam-poweredcylinder press, 1814. Koenig’s invention caused the speed of printing to skyrocket, while its price dropped considerably.
  5. 5. Photography• Joseph Niepce – Frenchman who produced the 1st photographic image.• He coated a pewter sheet with light-sensitive asphalt which hardens when exposed to light.• He then contact printed a drawing, which had been oiled to make it transparent, to the pewter, washed it with lavender oil and then etched it with acid. This was called „sun engraving.‟
  6. 6. • After a long process of experimenting and collaboration with Louis Jacques Daguerre – perfected process in 1839.• About the same time in England – William Henry Fox Talbot produced a process that formed the basis for photography.• In the late 1840s Talbot developed a new process called “calotype” – increased light sensitivity of paper.• In 1888 – American dry-plate manufacturer, George Eastman introduced the Kodak camera.• Photography was used as a research tool.• 1880-1890 – photomechanical reproduction replaced skilled craftsmen, process reduced printing time.• Moving images became a possibility.
  7. 7. Photography as Reportage • 1st occurrence of reportage photography – American Civil War. • Mathew Brady – photographed the war.
  8. 8. Victorian Era 1849 – Queen Victoria’s husband conceived the idea of a grand exhibition with hundreds of exhibitors from allindustrial nations – known as the Crystal Palace Exhibition.
  9. 9. Chromolithography• Lithography = a method of printing using an etching stone on a completely smooth surface.• Chromolithography = method for making colour prints.• By 1860 its popularity had grown immensely.• Without traditions & constraints of the letter press, designers could invent any letter form and utilize an unlimited palette of vibrant colours that they could
  10. 10. • Circuses and carnivals first to use these new methods for their posters.• Chromolithography was then moved onto labels & packages.• By 1897, chromolithography became obsolete.
  11. 11. Battle of the Signboards• Mid 19th century – letterpress poster & broadsheet were challenged by more visual & pictorial posters.• Lithography allowed for a more illustrative approach to public communication.• Large woodblocks were printed in sections – then assembled by poster hangers.• In France – letterpresses and lithographers combined their skills to create colourful lithographic illustrations – pasted onto large
  12. 12. Images for Children• Pre-Victorian Era – children were treated like adults.• Victorians began to treat them more tenderly with the development of toybooks – colourful picture books for preschool children.• Walter Crane (1845-1915)• Randolph Caldecott (1846-1886)• Kate Greenaway (1846-1901)
  13. 13. Rise of AmericanEditorial & Advertising Design • James & John Harper launched a printing firm in New York (1817.) • The firm opened the era of the pictorial magazine with Harper’s New Monthly Magazine.
  14. 14. Victorian Typography• In the Victorian Era, the taste for ornate elaboration was a major influence.• Outlandish and fantasy lettering was very popular – many trademarks in the era reflect the Victorian love of ornamental complexity.• Even today, Victorian design conventions are still found, particularly in commercial promotion.
  15. 15. The End.
  • kofiT

    Nov. 13, 2018
  • CynthiaTHarris

    Aug. 15, 2016
  • CynthiaKhaled

    Jun. 8, 2015
  • eewhere5

    Sep. 18, 2014

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