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Masters Thesis Defense
Assessment of food security status of PSNP beneficiary
households in Ethiopia: The case of Libokemk...
OUTLINE
Introduction
 Background and statement of the problem
 Objectives of the study
Conceptual Framework
Methodology
...
INTRODUCTION
 Food security recently applied to community, local,
household & individual level (Foster 1992).
 Necessity...
CONT.
 Causes of food insecurity in Ethiopia?
poverty;
weak institutions (market and land tenure);
land degradation;
...
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
 Previous food security studies focus on process indicators.
 Studies on the nutritional status...
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
 General Objective
to assess the food security status of the PSNP beneficiary
households in Libok...
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
 What does the PSNP beneficiary household food security (access
to food) status look like in the study...
HYPOTHESES
 Household food security status has a positive correlation with :-
use of chemical fertilizer,
market distan...
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Basic service
Extension
Market
PSNP
Conditional
cash transfer
Livelihood
assets
Cultivated land
Lives...
METHODOLOGY
 Selection of study area
selection of Libokemkem district was purposive:
CFI districts [targeted by PSNP pr...
CONT.
 Sample size and sampling procedures
two clusters of PSNP kebeles (case load)
two kebeles were selected randomly
CONT.
sample size (Yamane1967):- n = N/1+N*(e)²
Where: n- sample size, N -population size, e –sampling error (5%)
howeve...
CONT.
 Data type
 Quantitative; &
 Qualitative .
 Data source.
 Primary;
 Secondary.
 Data collection methods:
 Ho...
CONT.
 Model specification and analysis
Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS):
to measure household food insec...
CONT.
 Mixed data analysis method
 Quantitative data analysis
 descriptive statistical techniques;
 inferential statis...
MAJOR FINDINGS
 Household food security status
13.75 % (n=22) food secure
86.25 % (n=138) food insecure
CONT.
 Measurement of Prevalence of Stunting
not stunted 17; moderately 4; and severely 41
CONT.
Stunning by food security status
 11 food secure ; 34 food insecure
CONT.
 Stunting by sex
 N = 62 [F 29, M 33]
 2 out of 3 were admitted for Out Patient Therapeutic Feeding (Birkute HP).
CONT
 Major coping strategies
CONT.
 Distribution by Coping Stages
Source: Adopted from MOH (2011)
Coping Stages Marked by Percent
Stage 1 Insurance St...
CONT.
 Distribution by coping stages
CONT
Determinants of food security
The maximum likelihood estimate of logit model
*** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1
Variable...
CONCLUSION
 The farming systems is constrained by:
demographic,
biophysical,
socioeconomic , and
technological factor...
RECOMMENDATION
 Shift from short term support scheme to livelihood based and
development oriented approach;
 Improving p...
RECOMMENDATION
 Appropriate development interventions toward women:
increase women’s income earning opportunities;
redu...
RECOMMENDATION
 Linking the PSNP cash/food transfer with non food
contributors of nutrition:
social transformation proce...
Thank y u!!!
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BEHAILU DEFENCE PPT (final 4)

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BEHAILU DEFENCE PPT (final 4)

  1. 1. Masters Thesis Defense Assessment of food security status of PSNP beneficiary households in Ethiopia: The case of Libokemkem woreda, south Gondar zone. Supervisor of thesis: Dr.Temesgen Tilahun Behailu Shewangizaw September, 2015
  2. 2. OUTLINE Introduction  Background and statement of the problem  Objectives of the study Conceptual Framework Methodology  Selection of the study area  Data type and source  Method of data collection  Sample size and sampling procedure  Model specification and method of data analysis Major Findings  Household food security status  Stunting (chronic malnutrition)  Major coping strategies  Determinants of household food security Conclusion Recommendation
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  Food security recently applied to community, local, household & individual level (Foster 1992).  Necessity to include nutrition into food security evolved over time (Quisumbing 1995) .  Food insecurity, malnutrition and vulnerability remain high in Ethiopia (WB 2014): 29 % absolute poor, 44 % suffer from chronic malnutrition, and 43 % vulnerable to absolute poverty.
  4. 4. CONT.  Causes of food insecurity in Ethiopia? poverty; weak institutions (market and land tenure); land degradation; insufficient landholding; low productivity rain fed agriculture; low off farm opportunities; population pressure; low literacy. [Firehiwot 2007; Degefa 2002; Gebremedhin 2001; Devereux-2000; Masefield 2000; Hurni 1998]
  5. 5. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  Previous food security studies focus on process indicators.  Studies on the nutritional status of children in PSNP woredas are not easily available  Attention to investigate the status of the linkage between food security program (PSNP) and nutrition is not adequate .  Hence the main gap is to assess food security status of PSNP households using both process and outcome indicator: prevalence of food insecurity (access) prevalence of stunting (chronic malnutrition)
  6. 6. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY  General Objective to assess the food security status of the PSNP beneficiary households in Libokemkem district.  Specific Objective measurement of prevalence of household food insecurity (access); measurement of prevalence of stunting (chronic malnutrition); determinants of food insecurity; identify household coping strategies.
  7. 7. RESEARCH QUESTIONS  What does the PSNP beneficiary household food security (access to food) status look like in the study area?  What does the chronic malnutrition (stunting) rate of children under five look like in the area?  What are the factors affecting food security situation in the area?  What are the main coping strategies in food shortage situation?
  8. 8. HYPOTHESES  Household food security status has a positive correlation with :- use of chemical fertilizer, market distance, annual income, plough oxen, TLU, size of cultivated land, and size of irrigated land; while it is negatively associated with family size .
  9. 9. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Basic service Extension Market PSNP Conditional cash transfer Livelihood assets Cultivated land Livestock, Oxen Income Irrigation Demographic Factor Family size Education Household activities On/off farm activities Non-farm activities Access Food availability Utilization Househol d food security and nutrition status Food intake Health status
  10. 10. METHODOLOGY  Selection of study area selection of Libokemkem district was purposive: CFI districts [targeted by PSNP program]; frequent visit RRM (Rapid Response Mechanism) Data source; Ethiopian mapping agency
  11. 11. CONT.  Sample size and sampling procedures two clusters of PSNP kebeles (case load) two kebeles were selected randomly
  12. 12. CONT. sample size (Yamane1967):- n = N/1+N*(e)² Where: n- sample size, N -population size, e –sampling error (5%) however, sample size scaled up to 171 (all pw in Birkute) increase number of child manageable finally systemic random sampling to select respondents Sample Kebeles Total PW - HH Sample size (PPS) Ginazana Selqisa 149 96 Birkute 75 48 Total 224 144
  13. 13. CONT.  Data type  Quantitative; &  Qualitative .  Data source.  Primary;  Secondary.  Data collection methods:  Household survey questionnaire;  Focus group discussion;  Key informant interview;  Observation; &  Analysis of relevant documents.
  14. 14. CONT.  Model specification and analysis Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS): to measure household food insecurity status Child Anthropometry: to measure stunting (chronic malnutrition) status Multiple Logistic Regression Model: flexible and easily used function; meaningful interpretation, and simpler in estimation (Nelson 1984). to identify the determinants of food security status.
  15. 15. CONT.  Mixed data analysis method  Quantitative data analysis  descriptive statistical techniques;  inferential statistics (simple regression using T-test as well as maximum likelihood estimate of logit model).  Qualitative data analysis  narrated to substantiate quantitative findings;  qualitative data was reduced according to similar patterns of characteristics:  major sources of food;  households’ coping strategies;  reasons to sell most of agricultural products...
  16. 16. MAJOR FINDINGS  Household food security status 13.75 % (n=22) food secure 86.25 % (n=138) food insecure
  17. 17. CONT.  Measurement of Prevalence of Stunting not stunted 17; moderately 4; and severely 41
  18. 18. CONT. Stunning by food security status  11 food secure ; 34 food insecure
  19. 19. CONT.  Stunting by sex  N = 62 [F 29, M 33]  2 out of 3 were admitted for Out Patient Therapeutic Feeding (Birkute HP).
  20. 20. CONT  Major coping strategies
  21. 21. CONT.  Distribution by Coping Stages Source: Adopted from MOH (2011) Coping Stages Marked by Percent Stage 1 Insurance Strategies Reversible strategies 77.5 Stage 2 Crisis Strategies I Marked by the sale of non productive assets 16.88 Stage 3 Crisis Strategies II Marked by sale of productive assets 5.63
  22. 22. CONT.  Distribution by coping stages
  23. 23. CONT Determinants of food security The maximum likelihood estimate of logit model *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1 Variable Estimated Coefficient Odds Ratio Std. Err. Significance Level Family Size -.853 0.426 .17961 0.043** Cultivable Land 6.775 875.724 2140.93 0.006*** Irrigated Land 16.707 61.222 1.5938 0.004 *** Market Distance .572 1.772 .4058 0.012 ** Education -.737 .478 .2952 0.232 TLU .349 1.418 .8006 0.536 Annual Income .0001 1.000 .0003 0.63
  24. 24. CONCLUSION  The farming systems is constrained by: demographic, biophysical, socioeconomic , and technological factors  Lack of sources of employment opportunities other than on- farm activities was found one of the challenges;  The majority of study households are food insecure; &  The prevalence of chronic malnutrition is also higher.
  25. 25. RECOMMENDATION  Shift from short term support scheme to livelihood based and development oriented approach;  Improving productivity through technology based approach: ss irrigation...  Strengthening complimentarity between PSNP and other development initiatives;  Livelihood diversifications to improve food access through: on farm; off-farm; non-farm business; employment pathway in the local labor markets;
  26. 26. RECOMMENDATION  Appropriate development interventions toward women: increase women’s income earning opportunities; reducing their work load; IGS and decision making at household level.  Targeted intervention within the ongoing FSP [ PSNP] : pregnant and lactating mothers;and  child.
  27. 27. RECOMMENDATION  Linking the PSNP cash/food transfer with non food contributors of nutrition: social transformation process through social behavioral change approach: family planning; nutrition promotion…
  28. 28. Thank y u!!!

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