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Stages of parturition in farm animals.

  1. 1. By: Dr.Arshaq Asfar
  2. 2.  Parturition is the physiologic process by which the pregnant uterus delivers the foetus and placenta from the maternal animal.  Parturition comes from the Latin word parturire, "to be ready to bear young one" and is related to partus, the past participle of parere, "to produce".
  3. 3. stages Stage 1: Cervical dilation Stage 3: Expulsion of the placenta Stage 2: Delivery of the fetus  3 stages:
  4. 4.  Changes not visible externally.  Preparation of birth canal and foetus for expulsion.  Signs of discomfort, mild colic, restlessness with elevated pulse and respiratory rate, body temperature falls.  Structure of cervix changes.  Onset of myometrial contractions.  Foetus assumes the disposition for expulsion.
  5. 5.  Loosening of the ground substance due to changes in the composition of collagen components. (Fitzpatrick,1977)  Increased incorporation of water which permits collagen fibres to separate under extension forces. (Fitzpatrick and Dobson,1979)  Cervix dilates: external os opening before internal os and becomes cone shaped due to wide dilation of external os. (Abusineina,1963)  Simultaneous shortening and internal os dilation.  Vagina and uterus form continuous canal that becomes tightly engaged by the distended allantochorion.
  6. 6.  Presence of cervicotubular and tubular-cervical contractions. Gillette and Holm (1963); Taverne et al. (1979)  Cervicotubular contractions prevent the premature displacement of foetuses, thus ensuring orderly expulsion from the horns. (Taverne et al., 1979)  Isolated ,uncoordinated waves changes to regular and coordinated peristaltic type.
  7. 7.  Frequency increases from 12-24 per hour in last 2 hours to 48 per hour just before expulsion (30 per hour in ewe). (Gillette and Holm 1963)  Placental attachment becomes less intimate.  Superficial cells undergo fatty degeneration.  Separation of margins with haemorrhage in deciduate placenta.
  8. 8.  Becomes more active and disposes itself.  Progressive rotation from ventral to dorsal position and fore limbs, head and neck extended in foal and puppy.  In calf and lamb extension only.  Flexed knees of calf first occupy dilating cervix; 30 minutes later digits are in cervix and it extends carpal joints in its efforts to ‘stand up in utero’. Abusineina (1963)
  9. 9. Animal 1st Stage (hrs) Cow, Buffalo 2-6 Mare 1-4 Ewe 2-6 Sow 2-12 Camel 2-7 Bitch 12
  10. 10.  Refers to expulsion of foetus.  In polytocous species stage cannot be separated from 3rd stage.  Sign: Apperance of abdominal contractions, superimposed upon onset of each myometrial contractions. (Gillette and Holm,1963; Zerobin and Spörri, 1972)  Disappearance of cervicotubular contractions. (Zerobin and Spörri, 1972)  Ferguson’s reflex.  Allantochorionic sac ruptures and gush of urine like fluid escapes from vulva.
  11. 11.  Amnion traverses vagina and appears at vulva as ‘water-bag’ with foetal limbs.  Foetal head next occupies vulva,contractions of uterine and abdominal muscles reach climax of expulsive effort, maximum effort coinciding with the birth of the foetal occiput.  Further straining causes foetal thorax to pass through vulva.  Usually, birth of hips quickly follows and hind limbs may be expelled.
  12. 12.  Foetus is born in amnion and quick movement causes its rupture; respirations, then begin.  In mare, cow and ewe (when monotocous) foetus is usually delivered in anterior presentation, dorsal position and extended posture.  In polytocous bitch and sow up to 40–45% of foetuses may be normally delivered in posterior presentation.
  13. 13. 2nd stage of labour in the cow 1 2 3 4 5
  14. 14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
  15. 15. Animal 2nd Stage Cow, Buffalo 70 min Mare 17 min Ewe 1 hr Sow 4 hrs Camel 30 min Bitch 6-12 hrs
  16. 16.  After 2nd stage, regular abdominal contractions largely cease. (Gillette and Holm, 1963)  Myometrial contractions persist; decrease in amplitude.  These contractions are important for dehiscence and expulsion of fetal membranes.  Waves of contractions passing from uterine tube to cervix persist, but in cow and sow reappearance of contractions in reverse direction. (Zerobin and Spörri, 1972; Ngiam, 1977)
  17. 17.  Weakening of acellular layer of adhesive protein, ‘glue line’ between cotyledonary and caruncular epithelium, is probably important in ensuring placental separation. (Bjorkmann and Sollen, 1960)  In last 5 days of gestation collagenisation of placentome and flattening of maternal crypt epithelium in cow. Grunert (1984)  Foetal villi have shrunk, owing mainly to sudden loss of turgidity related to escape of blood from foetal side of placenta when umbilical cord ruptures.
  18. 18.  Early degenerative or maturational changes which are seen in caruncles of ewe and cow, cause separation of fetal membrane.  Apex of allantochorionic sac becomes inverted and as sac is ‘rolled’ down cornua the fetal villi are drawn out of crypts.  This forms a mass within maternal pelvis which stimulates reflex contractions of abdominal muscles leads to expulsion of fetal membranes.  Domestic animals normally eat afterbirth except Mare.
  19. 19. Cow Mare
  20. 20. Eating of foetal membranes Foetal membranes along with placentomes
  21. 21.  In polytocous species,dehiscence and expulsion of fetal membranes are interspersed with fetal births.  Stimulus of suckling causes release of oxytocin, which promotes ‘letdown’ of milk and augmentation of myometrial contractions.  Suckling resulted in greater synchrony of contractions and increase in number of tubocervical contractions. (Ngiam, 1979).  Suckling exerts a favourable influence on expulsion of afterbirth.
  22. 22. Animal 3rd Stage Cow, Buffalo 6-12 hrs Mare 30min-3hrs Ewe 2-3 hrs Sow 4 hrs Camel 1 hr Bitch Along with fetus or shortly
  23. 23. Cow:  Immediate approach of labour has been recognised by slackening of pelvic ligaments and change of the mammary secretion from a relatively transparent, honey- like secretion to an opaque cellular secretion – colostrum. Parkinson,T. J. (1993)  Occasional straining may occur during 1st stage.  Food is only picked; rumination is irregular; there may be kicking at belly.
  24. 24.  Line of demarcation between first and second stages is not clear-cut, as in mare.  Umbilical cord is shorter in calf and its rupture generally occurs as calf falls from vulva.
  25. 25.  Imminence of labour can be recognised by degree of mammary hypertrophy, waxing of teats and possibly escape of milk from glands.  Best indication: onset of patchy sweating behind elbows and about flanks 4 hrs before birth of foal.  Tail is frequently raised or held to one side or slapping of it against the anus and kicking at abdomen.  Onset of 2nd stage occurs abruptly characterised by appearance of amnion or commencement of forcible straining. Pycock,J.F (1977)
  26. 26.  During its delivery, head is generally in oblique position; it may even be transverse – cheek lying on the limbs.  Separation of placenta tends to proceed rapidly once second stage begins. Pycock,J.F (1977)  Straining is not a feature of third stage.
  27. 27.  Imminence of parturition indicated by preparing bed.  Transient drop in body temperature, 1.2°C within 24 hours before of parturition.  40% of puppies born in posterior presentation.  Umbilical cord intact at birth quickly torn by mother.  Uterine discharge dark green in colour, due to breakdown of marginal haematoma (‘green border’).(Queen: brown coloration)  Stage of expulsion of foetuses most irregular, tendency for puppies to be expelled from alternate horns. (Van der Weyden et al., 1989).
  28. 28.  60 to 75% of sows farrow at night. (Bichard et al., 1976; Kovenic and Avakumovic, 1978)  No separate 2nd and 3rd stage of labour.  Several alternating periods of rest and bed-making and in the hour preceding birth of first piglet, sow settles quietly into lateral recumbency. Jones(1966) and by Randall (1972)  Offspring delivered randomly from both uterine horns. Taverne et al.(1977)
  29. 29.  55.4% anterior and 44.6% posterior presentations. Randall (1972)  Mean interval between consecutive births is 16 minutes.  Fetal membranes tend to be expelled as 2 or 3 masses of joined allantochorions with placental stalks of umbilical cords.  Sow usually stands up and micturates profusely after parturition.  Early-born piglets are more likely to survive than either middle-born ones or late-born ones from tips of the uterine horns.(Dzuik and Harmon, 1969; Sprecher et al., 1974; Leman et al., 1979).