PRESENTATION ON SOLAR CAR
(TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS, DESIGN, BRAKING AND SUSPENSION)
Anirudh Pratap Singh
Mr. P.N Vishwakarma
Name Enrollment number
Abhishek Thakur A2305411201
Akshay Mistri (Slides 3,4,5,6) A2305411185
Anirudh Pratap Singh A2305411135
Sarthak Anand A2305411198
BASIC ASSUMPTIONS MADE
• Gross weight of the vehicle including two passengers: 400 Kg
• Max velocity to be achieved: 30 Km/hr or 8.334 m/sec or 2.54 ft/sec
• Wheel diameter: 16 inches or 40.64 cm
• Max gradient climb: 5 degrees
• Surface friction factor: 0.02 (𝐶𝑟)
• Time taken to achieve max speed: 3 seconds
These torque calculations are made by the help of a paper from University of Florida.
Condition Torque requirements (N-m)
Per wheel torque
required (2 × per wheel
To just start motion of vehicle 8.93 17.86
To start and accelerate (without any
To move on a 5º gradient 59.59 119.18
• DC Series motor will be used
• Max torque : 8 or 9 N-m
• Continuous (Average) Torque : 6 N-m
• Voltage : 60 Volts (max)
• Since, we will vary the motor current, Horsepower and RPM conditions will have to
adjusted according to the motors available in the market.
GEAR REDUCTION SYSTEM
• Needed to multiply the motor output torque.
• Feeds multiplied torque into the differential.
• 𝑂𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑇𝑜𝑟𝑞𝑢𝑒 𝑊ℎ𝑒𝑒𝑙𝑠(N-m, Max) =
Motor Torque (N-m, Continuous) × Gear Reduction ×
• 41.343 = 6 × Gear Reduction × 0.5 (or 50%)
• Gear Reduction =
= 13.781 or 14
• Braking system will consist of two disc
brakes for front wheels and two drum
brakes on the rear wheels.
• It will also include a parking brake or a
• Braking power is analyzed in such a way that it is maximum enough to brake the car but not
• Brakes used will have an effective braking radii of 130 mm.
• This analysis gives the following outputs:
Braking time 1.213 seconds
Minimum Braking distance (d) 5.0571 m
Deceleration achieved 6.867 m/𝑠𝑒𝑐2
Effective Brake radii 130 mm or 0.13 m
Braking Force 2746.8 N
Max. Braking torque 357.084 N-m
Max Braking torque (per wheel) 89.271 N-m
In cars, the parking brake, also called hand
brake, emergency brake, or e-brake, is a
latching brake usually used to keep the vehicle
stationary. It is sometimes also used to prevent
a vehicle from rolling when the operator needs
both feet to operate the clutch and throttle
pedals. Automobile hand brakes usually consist
of a cable directly connected to the brake
mechanism on one end and to a lever or foot
pedal at the driver's position. The mechanism is
often a hand-operated lever (hence the hand
brake name), on the floor on either side of the
driver, or a pull handle located below and near
the steering wheel column, or a (foot-operated)
pedal located far apart from the other pedals.
• Suspension is the system of springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to
its wheels and allows relative motion between the two. Suspension systems serve a dual purpose —
contributing to the vehicle's road holding/handling and braking for good active safety and driving
• Why double wishbone in the front?
• Double wishbone suspension system satisfies the above objective. It has the following advantages-
• It gives more flexibility in designing the suspension system i.e. we can control roll centre variation and
roll centre height as per the requirements of vehicle.
• It is sturdy and hence easily sustains the large bumps, frequent impacts that is desirable for front
• Even if this suspension requires large space, it is suitable as we have enough space in the front.
Double Wishbone Suspension System
A double wishbone (or upper and lower A-arm) suspension is an independent
suspension design using two (occasionally parallel) wishbone-shaped arms to locate
the wheel. Each wishbone or arm has two mounting points to the chassis and one
joint at the knuckle. The shock absorber and coil spring mount to the wishbones to
control vertical movement. Double wishbone designs allow the engineer to carefully
control the motion of the wheel throughout suspension travel, controlling such
parameters as camber angle, caster angle, toe pattern, roll center height, scrub
radius, scuff and more.
Castor angle: it’s defined as the angle created by the steering pivot point from the front to
back of the vehicle. Caster is positive if the line is angled forward, and negative if backward.
Typically, positive caster will make the vehicle more stable at high speeds, and will increase
tire lean when cornering. This can also increase steering effort as well.
Camber angle: Camber angle is the measure in degrees of the difference between the
wheels vertical alignment perpendicular to the surface. If a wheel is perfectly perpendicular
to the surface, its camber would be 0 degrees. Camber is described as negative when the
top of the tires begin to tilt inward towards the fender wells. Consequently, when the top of
the tires begin to tilt away from the vehicle it is considered positive.
Roll Centre: "The point in the transverse vertical plane through any pair of wheel centers at
which lateral forces may be applied to the sprung mass without producing suspension roll".
The lateral location of the roll center is typically at the center-line of the vehicle when the
suspension on the left and right sides of the car are mirror images of each other.
The significance of the roll center can only be appreciated when the vehicle's center of
mass is also considered. If there is a difference between the position of the center of mass
and the roll center a moment arm is created. When the vehicle experiences angular
acceleration due to cornering, the size of the moment arm, combined with the stiffness of
the springs and anti-roll bars (anti-sway bars in some parts of the world), dictates how
much the vehicle will roll. This has other effects too, such as dynamic load transfer.
• To calculate spring rate:
• Starting with the basic equation from physics, relating natural frequency, spring rate, and
• f= (K/M)^1/2*1/2π f = Natural frequency (Hz)
• K = Spring rate (N/m)
• M = Mass (kg)
• f = 1.5
• The spring rate of a coil spring may be calculated by a simple algebraic equation or it may be measured in a spring
testing machine. The spring constant k can be calculated as follows:
• k = Gd^4/8ND^3
• k = 80*10^9*(0.008)^4/8*20(0.60)^3
• k = 9481.481 N/m
• Wheel rate = k/MR^2 where MR^2 = motion ratio
• Wheel rate = 9.481N/mm
Natural frequency =1.5
Speed achieved = 2.54 ft/sec
Weight distribution at front = 55%
Total weight(kg) = 400
Sprung weight = 400
Spring length closed (mm) = 160
Spring deflection (mm) = 229.4
Energy stored (J) = 247.29
Spring stiffness (N/m) = 9.4*10^3
Pitch of lead (mm) = 19.47
Shear stress (τ)(Pa) = 643*10^6
Angle of damper with vertical = 25
Motion Ratio = 1
Wheel Rate = 9.481
Spring compression = 52.578
Force in spring(front) = 2156
Spring Rate(N/m) = 9481.481
Force in spring (rear) = 1764
Compression of spring = 68.16549367
Required k (N/mm) = 9.481481
The most essential part of the vehicle is the KNUCKLE. Steering arm is attached
to knuckle which provides steering moment, stub axle of the wheel is fitted inside
the knuckle hole and it also supports two arms of the wishbones. The forces on
the knuckle are calculated by using impulse-momentum equations for the vehicle
which will strike the ground completely on one wheel for 0.1sec.
The upper and lower wishbones form the part of the four bar linkage and thus are
subjected to compressive, tensile forces. These forces are calculated using static
equations. The wishbones should be design in such a way that it easily carries
these loads. By applying the principles of strength of materials the minimum
dimensions of these wishbones are calculated.
The knuckle and the wishbones are connected using the ball-joints which allow a 3-
dimensional movement of one part with respect to the other.
However the ball joints must carry the dynamic and static loads so that it functions
properly. The static load on the ball joint is the reaction force given by the knuckle to the
The rod ends are used to allow the spring-damper system to move it relative to the fixed
support on the roll cage. It should sustain the maximum dynamic and static conditions.
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Provides information on brakes, suspension, transmission system design for a solar car