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THE EVOLUTION OFTYPOGRAPHY FOR AN INDUSTRIAL AGE
Innovations in typographyThe wood-type poster A revolution in printingThe mechanization of typographyFat faced type as well as Egyptian andsans-serif type were all developed inthe early 1800s. Wood-type postersmade in conjunction with the clientwithout a designer for posters andhandbills proliferated. FriedrichKoenig developed a press powered bya steam engine which dramaticallyincreased the speed of printing.Another German, Ottmar Mergenthalerinvented a mechanical typesettingmachine called a Linotype (line-o-type) which was anotherimportant breakthrough inprinting.
Typography is a triangular relationship betweendesign idea, typographic elements, and printingtechnique. —Wolfgang WeingartIF YOU REMEMBER THE SHAPE OF YOUR SPOON AT LUNCH, IT HAS TOBE THE WRONG SHAPE.THE SPOON AND THE LETTER ARE TOOLS; ONE TO TAKE FOOD FROMTHE BOWL, THE OTHER TOTAKE INFORMATION OFF THE PAGE... WHEN IT IS A GOOD DESIGN, THEREADER HAS TO FEEL COMFORTABLE BECAUSE THE LETTER IS BOTHBANAL AND BEAUTIFUL." —ADRIAN FRUTIGER
Typography in an industrial ageBetween the years of 1760 and • Obviously, the days of the 1940 Europe and in illuminated manuscript and particular, Britain, went hand-written texts were at through a period of rapid an end: publishers needed social and economic to get their words (and changes. As the general more importantly, the population increased in information and the both number and intellectual properties they educational standing, and represented) to the people the economy boomed far faster than ever before under the so-called industrial revolution, the demand for the printed word increased rapidly.
The printing press and typography were born• By 1827 Darius Wells was • The unity of text and using a hard-carved wooden graphics, before the sole type block to mass-produce realm of the manuscript text. Wood was a popular producing monastic medium for this purpose, community became a key being easy to carve, element of branding factory abundant in supply and output. With the markets light to carry. The typical flooded with goods and heavy serif font found on products, branding was "wild west" poster is a by- becoming important - and product of the carving for the first time, typeface process: big, bold and was a tool to distinguish blocky was the order of the Bloggs products from day. Smiths
The Mechanisation of Typography• Whilst wood-block printing is fine for big • With the power to now mass produce posters, its not the most effective way of quicker and cheaper than ever before, and rendering text onto a page. Another the market crying out for reading material, system for creating the printed word was the size, number and type of printed required. In 1815, William Crowther articles increased dramatically. Articles invented a printing press using curved could now be designed, combining type steel plates: a design that it still being and images to dramatic effect. The general used, barely changed, today. A vast public loved it. amount of both time and money went into producing and refining these printing presses. They were a double-edged sword however: increased revenue for publishers and a boon for newspapers and periodicals, they came at the cost of mass unemployment in the typesetting industry. One man and a machine could achieve what once required a team of skilled typesetters, in half the time