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How Design & Engineering Have Changed Football Since 1863

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To help mark the 2014 World Cup, we’ve created a new infographic that covers the technology behind the world’s game and the designs that have shaped the sport since 1863.

How Design & Engineering Have Changed Football Since 1863

  1. 1. 1855THEN 1855 1862 1868 18781870 18781878 1889 19051905 19301905 1950 19561955 19891967 1989 In each corner, an 8,000-candle-power lamp and reflector were placed on 10-yard high wooden platforms. 19901990 20142013 NOW 1863 The first pitches could be up to 200 yards long by 100 yards wide. There were no markings, but flags designated the corners. Goalposts were set 8 yards apart. 1902 THE TECHNOLOGY BEHIND THE WORLD’S GAME Every year, athletic companies are sure to inform us of the latest advances in boot and ball technology, but what about the history of other technological advancements that make football kick? THE FOOTBALL ASSOCIATION (FA) WAS FORMED IN ENGLAND MARKING THE BEGINNING OF MODERN FOOTBALL/SOCCER. THE PLAYING FIELD 1863 1981 1994 1996 2001 2010 1927 2005 2010 1937 1969 2014 1980s-90s The first association game—a scoreless draw—was played on the grass pitch of Barnes Common in London between Barnes Football Club and Richmond Football Club. 19 DECEMBER Queens Park Rangers FC in London laid the first artificial turf pitch in professional football at their home stadium, Loftus Road. Three other clubs, Luton Town FC, Oldham Athletic AFC and Preston North End FC follow suit. Second generation artificial turf with rubber and sand infill below the fibers was developed. Eventually these side effects persuaded early adopters to return to natural grass. The early artificial surfaces caused: - rug burns during slide tackles - the ball to bounce more than on grass - poor footing - joint injuries Hybrid grass systems featuring millions of synthetic fibers injected into natural grass pitches were developed. Galpharm Stadium, home of Huddersfield Town AFC in Huddersfield, England was the first to install the Desso GrassMaster hybrid system. Today, hybrid systems are used at world class stadiums around the world, including Wembley Stadium in London. Third generation artificial turf featuring individual fibers of 40mm or more implanted into a base of rubber granules laid over silica sand was developed. This next generation turf allows: - more natural ball play - softer cleat impact - reduced friction burning Desso hybrid systems were used at Mbombela Stadium and Peter Mokaba Stadium in South Africa—marking the first time hybrid pitches were used at football’s premier event. A Desso hybrid system will be used at the Arena de São Paulo in São Paulo Brazil. CAD plays a vital role in developing the testing equipment that ensures all hybrid grass systems and artificial surfaces comply with safety standards SOURCES The first live media broadcast of a football match. The BBC radio broadcast Arsenal FC vs. Sheffield United FC at Arsenal’s Highbury stadium in London. Highbury also hosted the first televised match—played between Arsenal’s first and reserve teams. The BBC again pushed the envelope, broadcasting the first match in color—played between Liverpool FC and West Ham United FC at Anfield stadium in Liverpool, England. The BBC streamed Liverpool FC vs. São Paulo FC in the 2005 Club World Championship final online. By 2006, streaming of football’s premier games was commonplace. Arsenal’s match versus Manchester United FC at Arsenal’s Emirates Stadium was broadcast by Sky as the first 3D TV football broadcast. A 1-yard radius quarter circle was also added from the corner flag posts. AT THE GAME MARKING THE PITCH 1937 The 10-yard radius penalty arc was added outside the penalty area. Goal lines, touch lines, and halfway lines were all marked. 1863 The first games (and many today) were played on natural grass. But artificial and hybrid surfaces are used as well. 1960 David Chaney headed a team of Research Triangle Park researchers who invented the first artificial turf. 1965-6 AstroTurf was invented by chemical company Monsanto and installed prior to the 1966 season in the Houston Astrodome Major League Baseball stadium in Houston, Texas—the first use of a synthetic surface in professional sports. Bramall Lane in Sheffield, England opened as a cricket stadium. Prior to the advent of 3D CAD, stadium design was basic at best and unsafe at worst Bramall Lane hosted its first football match. Sheffield United FC was founded and moved into Bramall Lane where it still plays home matches. In October, Bramall hosted the first ever floodlit football match. Twenty thousand people attended. Behind each goal, a portable engine powered two Siemen’s dynamo machines to run the lamps. Roofs were added in some stadiums to cover terraces. Early stadiums had rudimentary facilities with few seating areas. Terraces were built on concrete or other fill after the wooden ones at Ibrox Stadium in Glasgow, Scotland collapsed in 1902 and killed 25 and injured 517. Floodlit football was banned in England by The FA. The floodlit ban was lifted in 1950, illuminating the possibility for night matches. Increasing TV coverage spurred stadium designers to add more toilets and better views to compete with the urge to stay home. The Hillsborough disaster—a crush of fans in the pens—at Hillsborough Stadium in Sheffield England killed 96 fans. Dramatic safety revisions followed with large portions of English stadiums converted to seating to prevent overcrowding. All top-level English clubs were playing at least some games under the lights. DID YOU KNOW? Bramall Lane is the world’s oldest stadium still hosting football matches. CAD continues to improve safety and creates new amenities, such as wi-fi access and giant LED HD screens. Dramatic renovations to existing stadium included more creature comforts. Across Europe, restaurants were added, and safety and comfort became a priority. Goal-line tech will be used in Brazil with pushes to add it to more domestic leagues. Englands’ Premier League became the first domestic league to require installation of goal-line technology in all stadiums. TODAY Officially sanctioned pitches today can be 100-130 yards long by 50-100 yards wide. THE GAME AT H ME INNOVATIONS IN STADIUM DESIGN The equipment broadcasting the contest, your television, your furniture, and your fridge are just a few of the countless products that benefit from design software. Your enjoyment of this match was made possible by CAD. From simulating field conditions and equipment to engineering designing systems and stadium amenities, 3D CAD is the premier technology that keeps football at the top of its game.
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To help mark the 2014 World Cup, we’ve created a new infographic that covers the technology behind the world’s game and the designs that have shaped the sport since 1863.


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