Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Upcoming SlideShare
What to Upload to SlideShare
Next
Download to read offline and view in fullscreen.

Share

9. neoplasia

Download to read offline

superficial introduction to the topic for bachelor level

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

9. neoplasia

  1. 1. Neoplasia Dr. Saugat Chapagain
  2. 2. Introduction Neoplasia- new growth of neoplasm or tumor - Mass of tissue formed as a result of abnormal, excessive, uncoordinated, autonomous and purposeless proliferation of cells even after cessation of stimulus for growth which caused it. Oncology – study of tumors Components: 1. Parenchyma - comprised by proliferating tumor cells and determines the nature and evolution of tumor. 2. Supportive stroma- composed of fibrous tissue and blood vessels and provides framework for parencchymal cells to grow on.
  3. 3. Special categories 1. Mixed tumors – • When 2 types of tumors are combined to form one tumor. • Adenosquamous ca. (endometrium), carcinosarcoma (thyroid), collison tumor (2 diffferent cancer in same organ that do not mix together), pleomorphic adenoma (epith. + mesenchymal) 2. Teratoma • Tissue types arising from totipotent cells from the germ cell layers. • Most common (gonadal teratoma) 3. Blastomas (embryomas) • Arise from embryonal/ partially differentiated cells. • Frequent <5 yrs of age. • Neuroblastoma, nephroblastoma, retinoblastoma, etc. 4. Hamartoma • Malignant disorganized cells of tissues indigenous to the particular organ • E.g. hamartoma of lungs 5. Choristoma • Ectopic islands of normal tissue. • a/k/a heteropia (not a true tumor)
  4. 4. Classification On basis of behaviour • Benign (-oma) • Malignant (-carcinoma/ - sarcoma) On basis of tissue of origin • Epithelial • Mesenchymal • Mixed • Teratomas
  5. 5. Characters of benign tumor • Differentiation – well differentiated • Rate of growth – slow, small size, stroma is formed • Capsule formation – composed of surrounding connective tissues (localized concealment) • No metastasis • Mostly asymptomatic • Minimal recurrence.
  6. 6. Clinical effects • Depends on size, position, mechanical pressure, obstruction and production of hormones. • Local effect • Discomfort and mechanical difficulty • Obstruction (obstructive jaundice by GB papilloma) • Ulceration, secondary bacterial infection and hemorrhage • Torsion • Pressure effect on adjacent tissues • Hormonal effect: • E.g. adenoma, thyrotoxicosis. • Malignant transformation: • E.g. adenoma of colon
  7. 7. Characteristics of malignant tumor • Differentiation and anaplasia – cytological abnormalities • Well differentiated  poorly differentiated  anaplastic • Pleomorphism – variation of size and shape • Architecture is disturbed • N:C ratio is increased • Nuclear pleomorphism • Rate of growth – rapid • Local invasion (+) • Non capsulated • Metastasis (+) • Recurrence (+) after surgical removal
  8. 8. Clinical effects of malignant tumors • Almost always fatal if untreated • S/S due to size, postion, mechanical pressure, invasion, obstruction, metastasis and systemic effects. • Local effects: • Obstruction (intestinal) • Invasion and destruction of surrounding tissue (ca. cervix invades the ureter) • Ulceration, secondary infection and hemorrhage. • Pain • Hematological changes: • Anaemia, neutrophilic leucocytosis and occasionally eosinophillia. • Starvation/ dysphagia – in ca. of mouth, oesophagus and stomach • Cancer cachexia – wasting with loss of body fat d/t fat metabolism • Effect of metastasis – depends on site of metastasis. • Impairment of immune response.
  9. 9. Routes of metastasis • local spread • Lymphatic • Usu. carcinomas • Hematogenous • Usu. Sarcomas • Along body cavities and natural passages • Transcoelomic – Krukenberg tumor (of stomach in ovaries) • Spread along epithelial lined surfaces - ovaries to fallopian tubes • Spread via CSF – meningeal carcinoma • Implantation – iatrogenic, via. injury sites.
  10. 10. Staging • TNM staging: • T0 to T4 – in situ lesion to largest and most extensive primary tumor • N0 to N3 – no nodal involvement to widespread LN involvement • M0 to M2 – no metastasis to disseminated hematogenous metastasis • AJC (american joint committee) • Stage 0 – 4 • Primary tumor, nodal involvement, distant metastasis
  11. 11. Laboratory diagnosis • Cytology • Histology • Tumor markers • Frozen sectioning • Immunocytochemistry • Immunofluroscent microscopy • Molecular diagnosis • Flow cytometry • Electron microscopy
  12. 12. Thank you
  • JayDeep34

    Jan. 19, 2021
  • HanyShaker22

    Aug. 23, 2019
  • ssuserba9939

    Apr. 19, 2018
  • symamubarak

    Jan. 31, 2018
  • SuSmaThapa6

    Jan. 23, 2018

superficial introduction to the topic for bachelor level

Views

Total views

334

On Slideshare

0

From embeds

0

Number of embeds

0

Actions

Downloads

4

Shares

0

Comments

0

Likes

5

×