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Participants 
Raj Banga, DBI Architects 
Dean Hintz, Safe Software 
Lutz Ross, Virtual City Systems 
Alex Karman, Revoluti...
FME Capabilities 
Transform Data to Use and Share 
Convert spatial data between hundreds of formats 
Transform spatial d...
Translation 
FME supports reading from a wide array of data formats and types: 
•300+ formats, with more added each year 
...
Transformation 
Move data between formats and systems 
Restructure data models and schemas 
•Geometry 
•Attributes 
•Coord...
Current FME 3D Formats 
Revit
•Adobe 3D PDF 
•LAS / LAZ 
•Autodesk 3ds 
•AutoCAD Civil 3D 
•AutoCAD DWG/DXF/RealDWG 
•Bentley Microstation 
•CityGML 2.0...
FME Tools for Tackling 3D 
Format translation 
Database loading and extraction 
GML, XML and web service support 
Schema m...
Turn This…
…Into This
Google Sketchup
IFC: Industry Foundation Classes
Point Clouds / LIDAR 
http://www.fmepedia.com/index.php/Category:Dmitris_Point_Cloud_Lab
Why extract info from BIM? 
Visualization
Why extract info from BIM? 
Views (Floor plans) 
Routing
Why extract info from BIM? 
Analysis
University of Washington Workflows 
Projects 
Data 
Updates 
Geometry 
Update 
Automated 
Sync 
Linked System 
For Adminis...
HOK Scenarios. 
Greg Schleusner 
Director of BuildingSMART Innovation 
Christopher Zoog 
BuildingSMART team member 
Model...
Distribution: 3DPDF, KML, GeoDB, OBJ
CityGML: Motivation 
An increasing number of cities and companies are building virtual 3D city models 
Different applicati...
CityGML: Motivation 
(C) by T.H. Kolbe
CityGML: What is it? 
CityGML is a data model and exchange format for virtual 3d city models 
Modeling of all relevant par...
CityGML | Characteristics 
Multi-Scale Modelling [Level of Detail] 
From landscape to interior model 
LOD 0 – Regional mo...
CityGML | Characteristics 
External References 
Refer to external data sources containing additional data 
Appearance (Tex...
Thematic modules 
Building 
CityFurniture 
Relief 
Transportation 
Vegetation 
WaterBody 
Tunnel 
Bridge 
CityObjectGroup ...
Read and Write CityGML up to version 2.0 
Support for any arbitrary ADE’s E.g. INSPIRE, Dutch IMGeo, Noise 
FME support...
FME Support for CityGML
FME Support for CityGML
Reader Driven by CityGML Schema 
One FME Feature Type per CityGML class (object) 
Reading CityGML
Typical CityGML Workflows 
Data Inspection and Evaluation 
CityGML model generation 
Creating LODs 
3D data generation fro...
Add CityGML specific attributes and geometry properties 
Format Attribute citygml_lod_name 
lodxSolid[1..4], lodxMultiS...
<CityModel> 
<cityObjectMember> 
<bldg:Building gml:id="UUID_13d7d225> 
... 
<creationDate>2008-12-09</creationDate> 
<bld...
IFC to CityGML Workspace 
Geometry transform, schema mapping and geo-referencing
IFC to CityGML Result
CityGML Writing Transformers 
filtering, id generation, 
configuring geometry model
Revit to CityGML: Leesburg Courthouse Square
Real World CityGML Models 
EU INSPIRE ADE 
Netherlands IMGeo 3D ADE, Geonovum 
Environmental Noise Directive 
Statewide Lo...
GeometryValidator for 3D 
•Checks for solids with inverted faces, dangling surfaces, unsealed solids, etc 
•Flag errors wi...
GeometryValidator Transformer
Distribution: 3DPDF, KML/COLLADA
Summary 
FME support for 3D & CityGML workflows: 
•Reading & writing CityGML and ADE’s 
•Translation to / from other 2D or...
Alex
We live in a Physical World 
•We live in a physical world 
•We identify with physical objects 
•Engineered structures are ...
How the New Paradigm Changes Things 
•Reduce Costs 
•Reduce Time 
•Do things we Couldn’t do Before 
•Make Information Acce...
A Universal Index of the Physical World 
•By treating CityGML as a 3D index to external databases, rather than as data, we...
The Value Proposition Of the Universal Index 
•Engineering design tools like Revit will not have to become increasingly bl...
The Power of the Universal Index 
•The NTSB collected 34 DVDs and 5,400 pages of documents for this incident. 
•You would ...
What We will Demonstrate 
On August 1, 2007, the I-35W bridge in Minneapolis collapsed into the Mississippi River. 
The NT...
What We Did for the Workshop: the Original Bridge 
1.We built a digital BIM model of the bridge in Revit off of the origin...
What We Did for Workshop: the New Bridge 
•We also ontologized the Federal Highway Association’s Inspection Record for the...
Tools Used in the Workshop 
•Protégé – Visualize (and edit) ontologies 
•Jena ARQ – perform SPARQL queries 
•VirtualCityMa...
I-35 Bridge Workflow: Revit to linked CityGML 
1.Bridge BIM created in Revit by DBI Architects 
2.Revit Extension - FME Ex...
DBIA - Raj
DBI Architects, Inc. 
•Washington DC Metro Area 
•Commercial Interiors 
•Private Sector 
•Public Sector 
(Security and Int...
The Model 
Is ‘geometric representation of the original scanned construction document blueprints from 1965 
All bridge ‘co...
I-35 Bridge in Revit
Facts About the I35W Bridge 
Construction began in 1965 – completed in 1967 
Bridge collapse occurred on Aug 1, 2007 
Over...
FME workflows: BIM to CityGML 
Dean
I-35 Bridge Workflow: Revit to linked CityGML 
1.Bridge BIM created in Revit by DBI Architects 
2.Revit Extension - FME Ex...
Revit to CityGML Demo: FME Workspace 
Read Revit .rvz file (from Revit->addins->FME Exporter) 
Georeference / reproject 
S...
Revit to CityGML Workspace
I35 Bridge CityGML: Data Inspector
Faulty Gusset Plate with URIs
Virtual City Map Viewer
Virtual City Map Viewer
Conversion Challenges 
•BIM too complex for most GIS applications 
•Geo-referencing 
•File size – instanced geometries (ri...
Conversion Solutions 
•FME RVZ reader allows data view selection to limit complexity 
•Offset transformers to align data 
...
virtualcitySYSTEMS GmbH 
CityGML Experts 
•Consulting 
•Training 
•Software Solutions 
•Vice-chair of the OGC CityGML SWG ...
Why CityGML? 
Urban Information Modeling 
…is far more than the 3D visualization of reality 
Geometry and its visual appea...
Exploring the I-35W Bridge 
Key ideas: 
•Database backend 
•Web-based interface 
•Link the bridge model to resources from ...
Solution
Live Demonstration
Alex Part II 
After VirtualCityMap Demo
It’s All About Context 
•OK, you hyperlinked a document to a CityGML architectural component. Great! 
•How do people under...
Similar Data Files, Minimal Context: Easy to forget origin, author
The Universal Index of the Physical World IS Big Data for Urban Life! 
Imagine billions of URIs in this picture, pointing ...
CityGML as an Index of URIs Universal Index of the Physical World 
•Agility (effortless merging and matching) 
• Cooperati...
Metcalfe’s Law 
Metcalfe's law states that the value of a telecommunications network is proportional to the square of the ...
The Wheat (Rice) and the Chessboard 
18,446,744,073,709,551,615 grains (Mt Everest) 
The Wiseman asks as reward for his se...
Ray Kurzweil’s “Second Half of the Chessboard” 
Big Data 
Data 
URIs 
Database 
Attributes 
The 
Computer 
Is on the 
Netw...
Linked Open Data Cloud 
31 Billion Triples in 2011 (last time counted)
The Bridge in the Linked Open Data Cloud 
The bridge component URIs can semantically link to billions of triples!
Why Use a Linked Data Solution? 
The amount of data a software engineering design tool can hold 
(and how much you could l...
Why Use a Linked Data Solution? 
The amount of data a linked data solution can hold 
(potentially a billion times more!)
Why Use a Linked Data Solution? 
The amount of data a linked data solution can hold 
(potentially a billion times more!) 
...
Linked Open Data Principles 
•Use URIs to denote things. 
•Use HTTP URIs so that these things can be referred to and looke...
LOD Principles in Action 
•DBPedia URI for Bridge 
•A Uniform Resource Identifier for the bridge 
•http://dbpedia.org/reso...
An engineered structure is at the center of a large network of people who interact with it, each with different roles, res...
Software Tools and Data Sources Should Be Tied to Their Corresponding Engineered Structures 
A software design and managem...
Why it can Scale Infinitely 
URI 
URI 
URI 
URI 
ONTOLOGY 
Subject 
Matter 
Experts 
Constantly updated and managed by SME...
ETL 
Database 
ERP 
CRM 
GIS 
BPM 
Doc Mgmt 
BI/ML 
Analytics 
Workflow 
Transportation 
E-Health 
E-Gov 
Utilities 
Homel...
Index (Card Catalog) 
Each entry in the card catalog points to a much larger collection of words (an entire book)
URI 
URI Objects let us link much more data! 
Alex 
Subject 
vs 
No “context” for “Donuts” 
Recipe Info 
Ingredients 
Nutr...
SPARQL Commands Bring Internet Resources to Your Desktop 
DESCRIBE 
Returns triples 
SELECT 
Returns bound variables (as t...
List of Public Ontologies That Help Link Other Ontologies 
•VOID 
•describes links between data sets 
•SIOC (pronounced “s...
What Rev-Mac is Doing with CityGML and RDF 
•Create wizard driven architecture that automates the creation of URIs in 3D e...
The Power of RDF Context: Google Hit List v. Google Rich Snippets 
Search “Lenses” 
Web pages have no RDF in them 
Google ...
The Power of RDF: Note the “callout box” on the right
Exercise 07: Describe Bridge from DBPedia
Exercise 07 Return: Thousands of Triples! (This is just a snippet showing the Callout Box) 
Just the triples that make the...
NS: As-Is Software Lifecycle Not Agile, Release-Bound)
Polymorphism: What Else Could this Bridge Be? 
•Bridge 
•Structure 
•Construction Project 
•Disaster 
•Asset 
•Source of N...
Polymorphism: I am a… 
•Son 
•Husband 
•Employee 
•Owner 
•Director 
•Licensed Driver 
•Licensed Ham 
•All of these could ...
Polymorphism: "Cooperation Without Coordination" 
Classes 
--------- 
owl:NamedIndividual 
owl:Thing 
<http://dbpedia.org/...
A Tale of Two Bridges 
•The Original Bridge Fell 
•Bridge 
•Collapse Event 
•Finite Element Analyses 
•Documentary Evidenc...
Has Design Element 
Design 
Element 
Field Report 
Bridge 
Bridge Component 
Truss 
Blueprint 
FEA 
FEA . . . 
Ontology: 
...
Thing 
text 
MT Guide 
Nat’l Bridge Inventory Record 
Nat’l Bridge Inspection 
Record 
Has Build Date 
Civil Engineering S...
Protégé Class View (“Truss” Selected) 
Note that there are 7 Individual Trusses modeled (the purple diamonds)
Individuals View (“Collapse” Shown)
Individuals View (“Bridge_Original_9340” Shown)
FEA Force Summary Spreadsheet (We ontologized it) 
Become “AnalyticalElement” and “DesignElement” classes, hasFx etc Data ...
Individuals View (AnalyticalElement Shown) 
“DesignElements” are very similar. We can summarize As-Built/Failed!!
Force Summary (Turn it back into a spreadsheet)
Return: Spreadsheet As-designed and as-failed Loads 
Compare these values to the original Excel spreadsheet 
But as RDF gr...
National Bridge Inventory Website 
(ASCII files are available on this site)
NBI Encoding Guide (We ontologized it) 
The ontologized document is now part of a much larger context 
We can turn spreads...
Alex - Review 
•Our Team has Developed the answer to Integrating static objects with continuous updates from the web 
•Cit...
Summary 
•CityGML - Ideal for 3D modeling and data exchange 
•FME – Ideal tool to support 3D & CityGML with conversion, tr...
Contacts 
Raj: RBanga@dbia.com 
Lutz: lross@virtualcitysystems.de 
Alex: alex.karman@rev-mac.com 
Dean: dean@safe.com
Links 
DBIA 
www.dbia.com 
Virtual City Systems 
www.virtualcitysystems.de 
Revolutionary Machines 
www.rev-mac.com 
Safe ...
Resources 
Virtual City Systems Demo 
http://hosting.virtualcitysystems.de/demos/interstate-35bridge/ 
FME Readers & Write...
BIM Conversion & Analysis Workshop: Story of the I-35W Bridge Collapse
BIM Conversion & Analysis Workshop: Story of the I-35W Bridge Collapse
BIM Conversion & Analysis Workshop: Story of the I-35W Bridge Collapse
BIM Conversion & Analysis Workshop: Story of the I-35W Bridge Collapse
BIM Conversion & Analysis Workshop: Story of the I-35W Bridge Collapse
BIM Conversion & Analysis Workshop: Story of the I-35W Bridge Collapse
BIM Conversion & Analysis Workshop: Story of the I-35W Bridge Collapse
BIM Conversion & Analysis Workshop: Story of the I-35W Bridge Collapse
BIM Conversion & Analysis Workshop: Story of the I-35W Bridge Collapse
BIM Conversion & Analysis Workshop: Story of the I-35W Bridge Collapse
BIM Conversion & Analysis Workshop: Story of the I-35W Bridge Collapse
BIM Conversion & Analysis Workshop: Story of the I-35W Bridge Collapse
BIM Conversion & Analysis Workshop: Story of the I-35W Bridge Collapse
BIM Conversion & Analysis Workshop: Story of the I-35W Bridge Collapse
BIM Conversion & Analysis Workshop: Story of the I-35W Bridge Collapse
BIM Conversion & Analysis Workshop: Story of the I-35W Bridge Collapse
BIM Conversion & Analysis Workshop: Story of the I-35W Bridge Collapse
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BIM Conversion & Analysis Workshop: Story of the I-35W Bridge Collapse

  1. 1. Participants Raj Banga, DBI Architects Dean Hintz, Safe Software Lutz Ross, Virtual City Systems Alex Karman, Revolutionary Machines
  2. 2. FME Capabilities Transform Data to Use and Share Convert spatial data between hundreds of formats Transform spatial data into the precise data model you need Integrate multiple different data types into a single data model Share spatial data with people where, when and how they need it
  3. 3. Translation FME supports reading from a wide array of data formats and types: •300+ formats, with more added each year •CAD, GIS, raster, database, web, non-spatial, 3D
  4. 4. Transformation Move data between formats and systems Restructure data models and schemas •Geometry •Attributes •Coordinate systems and projections Example •Derive new attribute values or construct geometry PointConnector transformer
  5. 5. Current FME 3D Formats Revit
  6. 6. •Adobe 3D PDF •LAS / LAZ •Autodesk 3ds •AutoCAD Civil 3D •AutoCAD DWG/DXF/RealDWG •Bentley Microstation •CityGML 2.0, ADEs •COLLADA •DirectX X File •Esri ArcGIS Layer •Esri Geodatabase •Free File Geodatabase API •NetCDF •Esri Shape •Google SketchUp, KML •IFC •LandXML •Oracle Spatial Object •Oracle Spatial Point Cloud •Point Cloud XYZ •Pointools POD •Presagis Openflight •Revit •VRML •Wavefront OBJ •XML / GML 3D Formats CAD VECTOR RASTER DATABASE BIM/3D WEB POINT CLOUD
  7. 7. FME Tools for Tackling 3D Format translation Database loading and extraction GML, XML and web service support Schema mapping Geometry model conversion (e.g. solid to mesh) Geometry transformation Geometry validation Complex geometry support, hierarchical Reprojection, geo-referencing, vertical datums
  8. 8. Turn This…
  9. 9. …Into This
  10. 10. Google Sketchup
  11. 11. IFC: Industry Foundation Classes
  12. 12. Point Clouds / LIDAR http://www.fmepedia.com/index.php/Category:Dmitris_Point_Cloud_Lab
  13. 13. Why extract info from BIM? Visualization
  14. 14. Why extract info from BIM? Views (Floor plans) Routing
  15. 15. Why extract info from BIM? Analysis
  16. 16. University of Washington Workflows Projects Data Updates Geometry Update Automated Sync Linked System For Administration, Operations, and Maintenance CAD/BIM GIS CMMS Life Safety Record Documents EH&S Space Inventory Security Room Scheduling FM Systems Misc. GIS Changes Misc. CAD/BIM Changes Aaron Cheuvront CAD/GIS Program Manager UW Capital Projects Office - Information Systems
  17. 17. HOK Scenarios. Greg Schleusner Director of BuildingSMART Innovation Christopher Zoog BuildingSMART team member Model checking Hierarchical DWG export Intelligent PDF export Enterprise wide sharing
  18. 18. Distribution: 3DPDF, KML, GeoDB, OBJ
  19. 19. CityGML: Motivation An increasing number of cities and companies are building virtual 3D city models Different application areas: E.g. Urban planning, disaster management, navigation, environmental simulations Graphical or geometric models are limited to visualisation purposes Growing need for Semantic Models to satisfy: thematic queries, analysis, spatial data mining Reusability -> costs reduction
  20. 20. CityGML: Motivation (C) by T.H. Kolbe
  21. 21. CityGML: What is it? CityGML is a data model and exchange format for virtual 3d city models Modeling of all relevant parts of the virtual city according to their semantics, geometry, topology and appearance GML 3 application schema (XML based)
  22. 22. CityGML | Characteristics Multi-Scale Modelling [Level of Detail] From landscape to interior model LOD 0 – Regional model LOD 1 – City model LOD 2 – City model with roof structure LOD 3 – Detailed architecture LOD 4 – Interior Model Source: slide from: Christian Dahmen, conterra
  23. 23. CityGML | Characteristics External References Refer to external data sources containing additional data Appearance (Textures) Application Domain Extensions (ADE) E.g. Noise, Energy, INSPIRE Generic city objects and attributes Source: slide from: Christian Dahmen, conterra
  24. 24. Thematic modules Building CityFurniture Relief Transportation Vegetation WaterBody Tunnel Bridge CityObjectGroup © KIT – Karlsruher Institute of Technology
  25. 25. Read and Write CityGML up to version 2.0 Support for any arbitrary ADE’s E.g. INSPIRE, Dutch IMGeo, Noise FME supports All thematic modules Level of Detail (LoD 0-4) Generic objects and attributes Non-spatial data / metadata Reprojection FME's support for CityGML
  26. 26. FME Support for CityGML
  27. 27. FME Support for CityGML
  28. 28. Reader Driven by CityGML Schema One FME Feature Type per CityGML class (object) Reading CityGML
  29. 29. Typical CityGML Workflows Data Inspection and Evaluation CityGML model generation Creating LODs 3D data generation from 2D •2.5D draping •3D extrusion Database loading BIM to GIS Export to distribution formats (PDF / KML)
  30. 30. Add CityGML specific attributes and geometry properties Format Attribute citygml_lod_name lodxSolid[1..4], lodxMultiSurface[2..4], lodxGeometry[0..5] Build relationship between features Example: 'Building' address 'Address' Use gml_id and gml_parent_id for relation Format Attribute citygml_feature_role CityGML Model entities by FME feature types Manually define or import CityGML entities Import entities from an existing CityGML dataset Writing CityGML: Basics
  31. 31. <CityModel> <cityObjectMember> <bldg:Building gml:id="UUID_13d7d225> ... <creationDate>2008-12-09</creationDate> <bldg:boundedBy> <bldg:WallSurface gml:id="UUID_50d7d286"> ... <bldg:opening> <bldg:Window gml:id="UUID_86e6b220"> ... </bldg:Window> </bldg:WallSurface> <bldg:RoofSurface gml:id="UUID_535118a1"> ... </bldg:RoofSurface> <bldg:GroundSurface gml:id="UUID_5350147b"> ... </bldg:GroundSurface> </bldg:Building> </cityObjectMember> </CityModel> Writing CityGML: Sample
  32. 32. IFC to CityGML Workspace Geometry transform, schema mapping and geo-referencing
  33. 33. IFC to CityGML Result
  34. 34. CityGML Writing Transformers filtering, id generation, configuring geometry model
  35. 35. Revit to CityGML: Leesburg Courthouse Square
  36. 36. Real World CityGML Models EU INSPIRE ADE Netherlands IMGeo 3D ADE, Geonovum Environmental Noise Directive Statewide LoD1 & LoD2 Buildings in Germany Sultanate of Bahrain, National 3D cadastre Singapore is evaluating CityGML as national 3D standard Further examples include Paris, Vienna, Brussels, Innsbruck, … 48
  37. 37. GeometryValidator for 3D •Checks for solids with inverted faces, dangling surfaces, unsealed solids, etc •Flag errors with meaningful attributes and geometric locations of the errors •Chain multiple validators to isolate problems of interest (e.g 2d before 3d) •Repair option for 3D surfaces and solids
  38. 38. GeometryValidator Transformer
  39. 39. Distribution: 3DPDF, KML/COLLADA
  40. 40. Summary FME support for 3D & CityGML workflows: •Reading & writing CityGML and ADE’s •Translation to / from other 2D or 3D format •Transformation of schema and geometry •Validation of schema, geometry and semantics •Automation and enterprise services Publication of 3D data and analysis services
  41. 41. Alex
  42. 42. We live in a Physical World •We live in a physical world •We identify with physical objects •Engineered structures are the focal point and jumping off point for all of the information needed by all of the roles that interact with that structure •What is the value of this new paradigm?
  43. 43. How the New Paradigm Changes Things •Reduce Costs •Reduce Time •Do things we Couldn’t do Before •Make Information Accessible to More People •Empower Business Owners and Subject Matter Experts •Fewer licenses, less technical labor •Avoid coordinated schema changes and software releases •Real time updates, sensor integration, inferencing •Easily merge and match any data related to an engineered structure •Directly translate business concepts into IT concepts available on the Internet backbone
  44. 44. A Universal Index of the Physical World •By treating CityGML as a 3D index to external databases, rather than as data, we can associate at least a million times more data with any structure modeled in CityGML •By embedding RDF URIs in CityGML as semantic links to external semantic databases, we can create an agile, egalitarian, low-cost, and multidisciplinary uber-database, accessible to everyone over HTTP (no schemas, data models, release cycles, protocols, interfaces, etc.) •RDF URIs are unambiguous references to things – no more “is this field in this database the same thing as that field in that database?” issues •No more field formats, codelists, Entity Catalogs, Feature Classes •Data is actionable the instant it is discovered, without the intervention of specifications and release cycles •CityGML becomes a Universal Index of the Physical World Nutshell: Don’t insert your data, insert URIs to your data!
  45. 45. The Value Proposition Of the Universal Index •Engineering design tools like Revit will not have to become increasingly bloated to accommodate more and more “ancillary” data •The data can be managed and kept current by subject matter experts •Cooperation without coordination – merge and match information easily •M2M “spiders” and “crawlers” can construct a sophisticated business context around the data and generate unique data products
  46. 46. The Power of the Universal Index •The NTSB collected 34 DVDs and 5,400 pages of documents for this incident. •You would not want to embed hyperlinks in CityGML for all of the documents. •You would not want to cram all that ancillary data in an engineering design tool like Revit, either! •Instead, you want to link the bridge to the documents, not the documents to the bridge •This establishes a context. •This can scale exponentially.
  47. 47. What We will Demonstrate On August 1, 2007, the I-35W bridge in Minneapolis collapsed into the Mississippi River. The NTSB collected over 5000 pages of documents and 34 DVDs of digital data on the accident. This makes the bridge an excellent example to demonstrate that using CityGML as an index and embedding URIs in it scales much better (to Big Data scale) than storing hyperlinks and data in the BIM model itself.
  48. 48. What We Did for the Workshop: the Original Bridge 1.We built a digital BIM model of the bridge in Revit off of the original 1965 blueprints. 2.We transformed it into CityGML in FME Desktop. 3.We ontologized a substantial portion of the available documentary evidence. 4.We added URIs for the bridge ad eight of its components to the CityGML model. 5.We prepared exercises that use the SPARQL query language to explore the data relationships 6.We demonstrated that using the CityGML model as an index scales better and builds a richer business context than inserting hyperlinks and data into the model.
  49. 49. What We Did for Workshop: the New Bridge •We also ontologized the Federal Highway Association’s Inspection Record for the replacement bridge (from an ASCII flat file into RDF). •The National Bridge Inventory contains a yearly record for each of 300,000 bridges in the US. •Each record contains 116 fields of data. •We prepared SPARQL exercises to demonstrate the Universal Index approach provides context around otherwise stove-piped data sources like ASCII flat files and spreadsheets.
  50. 50. Tools Used in the Workshop •Protégé – Visualize (and edit) ontologies •Jena ARQ – perform SPARQL queries •VirtualCityMap– Visualize CityGML and access embedded semantic links •FME Desktop – Convert BIM to CityGML •Revit – Visualize (and edit) bridge BIM •Installation instructions are on the Rev-Mac Blog
  51. 51. I-35 Bridge Workflow: Revit to linked CityGML 1.Bridge BIM created in Revit by DBI Architects 2.Revit Extension - FME Exporter - creates .rvz file 3.FME Workspace: Revit .rvz to CityGML conversion with embedded component uri’s 4.VirtualCitySystems imports CityGML into their 3D City Database 5.RevMac – uses linked data tools / rdf to analyze embedded component data
  52. 52. DBIA - Raj
  53. 53. DBI Architects, Inc. •Washington DC Metro Area •Commercial Interiors •Private Sector •Public Sector (Security and Intelligence Agencies) •Institutional Sectors •Architecture •Planning •Emphasizing Design Technology •Early Adopters of CAD and BIM Technology •90% of projects in Autodesk Revit Architecture •Integrating with BIM clients, partners, and vendors •Focused on future use of BIM technology for use in A/E/C/O
  54. 54. The Model Is ‘geometric representation of the original scanned construction document blueprints from 1965 All bridge ‘components’, (ie: concrete pilings, trusses, gusset plates, road surface, etc) were modeled utilizing Autodesk’s Revit Architecture platform. No structural calculations or algorithms were ‘re- engineered’ within this digital model. Intent for this exploration was not to digitally ‘re- construct’ each and every component, but to have a ‘geometric representation’ Building Information Model (BIM) to which we would illustrate how to externally link semantic data. Creating the Digital I35W Bridge
  55. 55. I-35 Bridge in Revit
  56. 56. Facts About the I35W Bridge Construction began in 1965 – completed in 1967 Bridge collapse occurred on Aug 1, 2007 Over 1900 feet long 14 spans – 11 ‘Approach’ Spans (5 South, 6 North) 3 Main Spans The 3 Main spans are “Deck-Truss” construction (Structural steel beams support the roadway deck) 9 of the North and South spans are “Multi-Girder Steel” (Concrete supported by steel I-beams) 2 of the North and South spans were simple Concrete slab Center span is one single 458-foot steel arch truss with two concrete support piers on the North and South River banks. All other spans were 266 feet in length and were connected to the approach spans by a 38-foot cantilever Each support pier had two load-bearing concrete pylons at either side capped with roller bearings. Concrete roadway deck was approx. 113 feet wide and approx. 115 feet above the river Failure Point – U10 Gusset Plate
  57. 57. FME workflows: BIM to CityGML Dean
  58. 58. I-35 Bridge Workflow: Revit to linked CityGML 1.Bridge BIM created in Revit by DBI Architects 2.Revit Extension - FME Exporter - creates .rvz file 3.FME Workspace: Revit .rvz to CityGML conversion with embedded component uri’s 4.VirtualCitySystems imports CityGML into their 3D City Database 5.RevMac – uses linked data tools / rdf to analyze embedded component data
  59. 59. Revit to CityGML Demo: FME Workspace Read Revit .rvz file (from Revit->addins->FME Exporter) Georeference / reproject Schema mapping (feature type, attributes) Set IDs to define object hierarchies Set CityGML LOD and Role (lod4MultiSurface) Add external references (uri’s) Remove rivets Write CityGML features
  60. 60. Revit to CityGML Workspace
  61. 61. I35 Bridge CityGML: Data Inspector
  62. 62. Faulty Gusset Plate with URIs
  63. 63. Virtual City Map Viewer
  64. 64. Virtual City Map Viewer
  65. 65. Conversion Challenges •BIM too complex for most GIS applications •Geo-referencing •File size – instanced geometries (rivets) •Schema mapping •which source feature types match citygml ones •find citygml feature types that are compatible across tools (VCS CityGML 1.0) •External reference insertion
  66. 66. Conversion Solutions •FME RVZ reader allows data view selection to limit complexity •Offset transformers to align data •FME enhancements •performance and stability improvements •64 bit FME improves scalability •Limit to CityGML 1.0 feature types for now •Use VolumeCalculator to find, remove rivets •Creation and insertion of external references
  67. 67. virtualcitySYSTEMS GmbH CityGML Experts •Consulting •Training •Software Solutions •Vice-chair of the OGC CityGML SWG FME Experts •3D data transformations (to and from CityGML) •FME training on CityGML/3D data
  68. 68. Why CityGML? Urban Information Modeling …is far more than the 3D visualization of reality Geometry and its visual appearance is only one aspect of a real-world entity Key issue: Semantic modelling However: 3D City models are still often seen as being identical with 3D graphics models e.g., KML/COLLADA, 3DS, 3D PDF, etc.
  69. 69. Exploring the I-35W Bridge Key ideas: •Database backend •Web-based interface •Link the bridge model to resources from the WWW •Distributing/Sharing the data
  70. 70. Solution
  71. 71. Live Demonstration
  72. 72. Alex Part II After VirtualCityMap Demo
  73. 73. It’s All About Context •OK, you hyperlinked a document to a CityGML architectural component. Great! •How do people understand your link in context? •File naming convention? •Annotation? •Metadata schema? •Thousand of elements, mostly null! Answer: Use URIs, not hyperlinks!
  74. 74. Similar Data Files, Minimal Context: Easy to forget origin, author
  75. 75. The Universal Index of the Physical World IS Big Data for Urban Life! Imagine billions of URIs in this picture, pointing to quintillions of triples!!!
  76. 76. CityGML as an Index of URIs Universal Index of the Physical World •Agility (effortless merging and matching) • Cooperation without Coordination •Anyone Can say Anything About Anything (“AAA”) •Polymorphism and “sets, not templates” •Reduced Costs •Text over HTTP: the Internet Backbone •Fewer (or no) software licenses •Fewer gatekeepers (DBAs, Enterprise Architects) •Disambiguation •URIs •No stove-piped documents •No more “Does X exist?” •No more “I found Y. What is it about?” Scalability (Big Data for 3D Urban Life)
  77. 77. Metcalfe’s Law Metcalfe's law states that the value of a telecommunications network is proportional to the square of the number of connected users of the system (n2).
  78. 78. The Wheat (Rice) and the Chessboard 18,446,744,073,709,551,615 grains (Mt Everest) The Wiseman asks as reward for his service to the Emperor to put one grain of rice in the first square on a chessboard And double the number of grains in each succeeding square Results in 2^63 grains!
  79. 79. Ray Kurzweil’s “Second Half of the Chessboard” Big Data Data URIs Database Attributes The Computer Is on the Network The Network Is the Computer CodeList Feature Classes
  80. 80. Linked Open Data Cloud 31 Billion Triples in 2011 (last time counted)
  81. 81. The Bridge in the Linked Open Data Cloud The bridge component URIs can semantically link to billions of triples!
  82. 82. Why Use a Linked Data Solution? The amount of data a software engineering design tool can hold (and how much you could learn to access through menu options)
  83. 83. Why Use a Linked Data Solution? The amount of data a linked data solution can hold (potentially a billion times more!)
  84. 84. Why Use a Linked Data Solution? The amount of data a linked data solution can hold (potentially a billion times more!) Benefits •Constantly Updated •Include/add comments •Add comments to comments (allow for discussion threads) •Attach correspondence, history, conversations
  85. 85. Linked Open Data Principles •Use URIs to denote things. •Use HTTP URIs so that these things can be referred to and looked up ("dereferenced") by people and user agents. •Provide useful information about the thing when its URI is dereferenced, leveraging standards such as RDF, SPARQL. •Include links to other related things (using their URIs) when publishing data on the Web.
  86. 86. LOD Principles in Action •DBPedia URI for Bridge •A Uniform Resource Identifier for the bridge •http://dbpedia.org/resource/I-35W_Mississippi_River_bridge •DBPedia URL for RDF data for the bridge •A static file containing RDF triples about the bridge •http://dbpedia.org/data/I-35W_Mississippi_River_bridge.n3 •Wikipedia URL for Bridge •A human-readable HTML document •http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I-35W_Mississippi_River_bridge •DBPedia Sparql Endpoint •Client must submit a SPARQL query •http://dbpedia.org/sparql?q=“SELECT…”
  87. 87. An engineered structure is at the center of a large network of people who interact with it, each with different roles, responsibilities, abilities, and data Contractors and Inspectors Architects and Engineers Building Owners/Facility Managers Tenants/Occupants/Users Engineered Structures Provide a Central Focal Point to Related Information
  88. 88. Software Tools and Data Sources Should Be Tied to Their Corresponding Engineered Structures A software design and management tool should also be at the focus of this large network Contractors and Inspectors Architects and Engineers Building Owners/Facility Managers Tenants/Occupants/Users
  89. 89. Why it can Scale Infinitely URI URI URI URI ONTOLOGY Subject Matter Experts Constantly updated and managed by SMEs To Linked Data Sets No Release Cycle CityGML as Index
  90. 90. ETL Database ERP CRM GIS BPM Doc Mgmt BI/ML Analytics Workflow Transportation E-Health E-Gov Utilities Homeland Security Energy Public Safety Maintenance/mgmt Earth Sciences URI URI URI URI URI Tourism •Wizard driven architecture •Connects role-specific clouds of information •All intersect in an engineered structure To-Be Architecture •Engineering design •Browser based •Server side and desktop software Tools Domains
  91. 91. Index (Card Catalog) Each entry in the card catalog points to a much larger collection of words (an entire book)
  92. 92. URI URI Objects let us link much more data! Alex Subject vs No “context” for “Donuts” Recipe Info Ingredients Nutritional Info Market Share Info Triples Were Born To Point to Other Things Across the Internet URI Predicate Literal Donuts Object Likes URI Alex Subject URI Predicate URI Donuts Object Likes Much larger “context” for “Donuts”!
  93. 93. SPARQL Commands Bring Internet Resources to Your Desktop DESCRIBE Returns triples SELECT Returns bound variables (as text, JSON or XML) ASK – perfect for alerts Returns true/false CONSTRUCT – perfect for sensors Returns a graph of your own design
  94. 94. List of Public Ontologies That Help Link Other Ontologies •VOID •describes links between data sets •SIOC (pronounced “shock”) •describes software projects •SourceForge, github, Maven, etc use it •FOAF •describes “friend of a friend” •Used on thousands of websites; drupal module too. •Dublin Core •describes documents and the people related to them •Author, publisher, contributor etc.
  95. 95. What Rev-Mac is Doing with CityGML and RDF •Create wizard driven architecture that automates the creation of URIs in 3D engineering software •Create wizard driven architecture that explores URIs, in 3D engineering software •Create wizard driven architecture that allows people to edit, manage and add semantic links in 3D engineering software
  96. 96. The Power of RDF Context: Google Hit List v. Google Rich Snippets Search “Lenses” Web pages have no RDF in them Google returns simple hit list Movie sites have RDF embedded in their web pages (ignored by your browser) Google returns awesome showtime chart! Search “Movies at Reston Town Center”
  97. 97. The Power of RDF: Note the “callout box” on the right
  98. 98. Exercise 07: Describe Bridge from DBPedia
  99. 99. Exercise 07 Return: Thousands of Triples! (This is just a snippet showing the Callout Box) Just the triples that make the “Callout Box” are shown. Triples in many languages!
  100. 100. NS: As-Is Software Lifecycle Not Agile, Release-Bound)
  101. 101. Polymorphism: What Else Could this Bridge Be? •Bridge •Structure •Construction Project •Disaster •Asset •Source of Noise Pollution •Job Creator •Infrastructure •Evacuation Route •Highway Segment •Historical Monument •Hazardous Area (Pedestrian-Free Zone) •EPA Site A Feature Class/Entity Catalog/Code List nightmare!!!!
  102. 102. Polymorphism: I am a… •Son •Husband •Employee •Owner •Director •Licensed Driver •Licensed Ham •All of these could be asserted on different sites •RDF was made for this situation. Object oriented programming and relational databases were not!
  103. 103. Polymorphism: "Cooperation Without Coordination" Classes --------- owl:NamedIndividual owl:Thing <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/ArchitecturalStructure&gt; <http://umbel.org/umbel/rc/Bridge&gt; <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/RouteOfTransportation&gt; <http://umbel.org/umbel/rc/Building&gt; <http://www.opengis.net/gml/_Feature&gt; <http://schema.org/Place&gt; <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/Place&gt; <http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#SpatialThing&gt; <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/Wikidata:Q532&gt; <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/Bridge&gt; <http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/ont/d0.owl#Location&gt; <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/Infrastructure&gt; DBPedia recognizes 14 classes for the original bridge Six are from other websites. No need to exchange schemas.
  104. 104. A Tale of Two Bridges •The Original Bridge Fell •Bridge •Collapse Event •Finite Element Analyses •Documentary Evidence •Force Summary Spreadsheet •The New Bridge Gets Inspected Annually •Bridge •Inspection Event •National Bridge Inventory Record •116 Observations
  105. 105. Has Design Element Design Element Field Report Bridge Bridge Component Truss Blueprint FEA FEA . . . Ontology: The Old Bridge Gusset Plate Design Element Analysis Element
  106. 106. Thing text MT Guide Nat’l Bridge Inventory Record Nat’l Bridge Inspection Record Has Build Date Civil Engineering Structure Bridge ? ? ?/? Observation Ontology: The New Bridge Belongs to Bridge Has Value
  107. 107. Protégé Class View (“Truss” Selected) Note that there are 7 Individual Trusses modeled (the purple diamonds)
  108. 108. Individuals View (“Collapse” Shown)
  109. 109. Individuals View (“Bridge_Original_9340” Shown)
  110. 110. FEA Force Summary Spreadsheet (We ontologized it) Become “AnalyticalElement” and “DesignElement” classes, hasFx etc Data Properties
  111. 111. Individuals View (AnalyticalElement Shown) “DesignElements” are very similar. We can summarize As-Built/Failed!!
  112. 112. Force Summary (Turn it back into a spreadsheet)
  113. 113. Return: Spreadsheet As-designed and as-failed Loads Compare these values to the original Excel spreadsheet But as RDF graph data it has context (bridge, author, date, FEA, Final Report, etc.)
  114. 114. National Bridge Inventory Website (ASCII files are available on this site)
  115. 115. NBI Encoding Guide (We ontologized it) The ontologized document is now part of a much larger context We can turn spreadsheets into RDF object graphs and vice- versa But only as an RDF object graph can the data become part of a larger context
  116. 116. Alex - Review •Our Team has Developed the answer to Integrating static objects with continuous updates from the web •CityGML is the standard of the future and we are at the forefront of building a virtual world that is live •Our world is complex – Rev-Mac can link it live •What’s Next – Transitioning live models to Augmented Reality ! •Join us on our web site www.rev-mac.com •http://www.rev- mac.com/bridge_workshop/index.html
  117. 117. Summary •CityGML - Ideal for 3D modeling and data exchange •FME – Ideal tool to support 3D & CityGML with conversion, transformation and automation •3D BIM data, once exported via CityGML, opens up a wide array of uses and applications •Transforming the I-35 Bridge from BIM to CityGML with embedded uri’s frees BIM for many more uses •CityGML as a universal index of the physical world •Don’t insert your data, insert URIs to your data •Linked models allow better management of complex infrastructure and its risks
  118. 118. Contacts Raj: RBanga@dbia.com Lutz: lross@virtualcitysystems.de Alex: alex.karman@rev-mac.com Dean: dean@safe.com
  119. 119. Links DBIA www.dbia.com Virtual City Systems www.virtualcitysystems.de Revolutionary Machines www.rev-mac.com Safe Software www.safe.com
  120. 120. Resources Virtual City Systems Demo http://hosting.virtualcitysystems.de/demos/interstate-35bridge/ FME Readers & Writers (CityGML Tutorial) http://docs.safe.com/fme/reader_writerPDF/citygml.pdf CityGML specifications http://opengeospatial.org/standards/citygml CityGML.org (Thomas Kolbe, etc) www.citygml.org/fileadmin/citygml/docs/CityGML_Tutorial_Kolbe_Internet.pdf Safe.com http://safe.com/solutions/for-data-types/3d/ FMEPedia http://fmepedia.safe.com/topic/3D
  • TadeuszJankowski1

    Nov. 18, 2017
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  • mayre0525

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  • vanwoods

    Jan. 22, 2015
  • GeorgePercivall

    Oct. 15, 2014
  • EricLieghio

    Sep. 26, 2014

Get tips on working with 3D and BIM data in this look at the 2007 Minneapolis I-35W bridge collapse.

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