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Characterization of Physicochemical Properties,
Phosphorus Fractions and P Release of the EAA
Canal Sediments
Dr. Jaya Das
 Everglades Agricultural Area
(EAA)
 In South Florida - between
Lake Okeechobee and ENP
 280,000 ha of organic soils
 ...
Drainage
 Importance of drainage in EAA
 Flat topography
 Canals and pumps used irrigate and drain fields
 Agricultura...
 Years of P loading
 Accumulation of P canal sediments
 Sediments as P sink or source
 Internal load of P
 Sediments ...
Experiment - 1
P Release Potential of
Canal Sediments
Experiment - 2
Characterization of
Canal Sediments
Experiment - 3
Eq...
Experiment 1 – Determination of
Phosphorus Flux from Canal Sediments
of the Everglades Agricultural Area
 Miami canal
 West Palm Beach canal (WPB)
 Ocean canal
Objectives
 Identify P release potential of sediments in the
ma...
Water
Sediment
Stopper
Air flow from pumps
 Incubation study
 Intact sediment cores
 Aerobic conditions
 Water from 0....
P Flux
Sediments
Each canal - 4 transects
Each transect - 3 cores
P Flux
Sediments
P Flux Calculations
 Ct = SRP concentration (mg L-1) at time t days
 Ct-1 = SRP concentration (mg L-1) at time t-1 days
...
Results
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 1 2 4 7 14 21 28 0 1 2 4 7 14 21 28 0 1 2 4 7 14 21 28
Prelease(mgm-2)
Time (days)
T1 T2 T3 T4
1st...
-100
50
200
350
500
650
0 1 2 4 7 14 21 28 29 29 30 32 35 42 49 56 57 57 58 60 63 70 77 84
Preleased(mgm-2)
Time (days)
T1...
0
10
20
30
40
0 1 2 4 7 14 21 28 0 1 2 4 7 14 21 28 0 1 2 4 7 14 21 28
Prelease(mgm-2)
Time (days)
T1 T2 T3 T4
1st exchang...
Cumulative P Release - West Palm Beach
Canal
 P release in WPB canal < Miami canal
 P release in T1, T2 & T3 ~ 110 mg m-...
0
10
20
30
40
0 1 2 4 7 14 21 28 0 1 2 4 7 14 21 28 0 1 2 4 7 14 21 28
Prelease(mgm-2)
Time (days)
T1 T2 T3 T4
1st exchang...
Cumulative P Release - Ocean Canal
P release in Ocean canal <P release in Miami canal
 Comparable to P release in WPB ca...
Conclusions
 P released was much lower in the third exchange
 P release from Miami canal > WPB and Ocean canal.
 More q...
Experiment 2 - Characterization of the
Sediments of EAA Canals
Objectives
Determine the factors responsible for P release from
EAA canal sediments by:
 Characterize EAA canal sediments...
Phosphorus
fractions
Physiochemical
properties:
Total P
%LOI
BD
pH
3 Main canals
Each canal: 4 transects
Each transect: 3 ...
0.1 M NaOH
17 h
0.5 M HCl
24 h
Ashed @ 550oC
6 M HCl digestion
2 h
1 M KCL
HCl Pi
Ca and Mg-P
Residual P
P-recalcitrant or...
Results
Selected Physicochemical Properties of EAA Canal
Sediments
Canal
Total P
mg kg-1
BD
g cm-3 %LOI pH
Miami 1430 a 0.26 b 26....
Sediment P Fractions
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
T1 T2 T3 T4 T1 T2 T3 T4 T1 T2 T3 T4
Miami Canal West Palm ...
Sediment P Fractions
 HCl-Pi largest P fraction (50-80% of Total P)
 Residue-P next big P fraction (10-30% of Total P)
...
Canal Transect
Feox
mg kg-1
Alox
mg kg-1
Ca
mg kg-1
Mg
mg kg-1
Miami
T1 677 195 26000 1280
T2 661 170 17600 678
T3 906 124...
Variables Total P KCl-P NaOH-Pi NaOH-Po HCl-Pi Residue-P
P
released
0.41** 0.33ns
0.004ns
0.25ns
0.25ns
0.04ns
BD %LOI pH
...
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
T1 T2 T3 T4 T1 T2 T3 T4 T1 T2 T3 T4
Miami WPB Ocean
PercentWeightLoss(%Wtloss)
%Wt loss-OM
%Wt lo...
XRD Analysis – Miami Canal
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Intensity(counts)
2θ
T1 T2
T3 T4
CA
AR
QZ
...
Canals
Minerals
Calcite Dolomite Aragonite Quartz Sepiolite Smectite KaolinitePalygorskite
Miami √ √ √ √ √ - - -
WPB √ √ -...
Conclusions
 P release was correlated with total P
 P release was correlated with Fe and Al oxides
 P fractions, BD, %L...
Miami Canal
Fe3+-P
KCl-P
Ca/Mg-P
Residue-P
NaOH-Po
Aerobic
canal water
Aerobic
Sediment layer
Anaerobic
Sediment
layer
Lim...
KCl-P Ca/Mg-PResidue-P NaOH-Po
Aerobic
sediment layer
Anaerobic
sediment
layer
Limestone bedrock
Aerobic canal
water
•WPB
...
Aerobic canal
water
KCl-P Ca/Mg-P
Residue-P NaOH-Po
• Mechanical
barrier of
shells,
limestone
rocks
reduces P
release
Aero...
Surface cross-section
sediment core from
WPB canal
Surface cross-section
sediment core from
Ocean canal
Intact cores showing subsurface carbonate
layers from WPB canal
Experiment 3 - Determination of EPC of EAA
Canal Sediments
Justification
 Equilibrium Phosphorus Concentration (EPC)
 Extent of internal load
 P release when water column P conce...
Objectives
 To determine the EPC values of:
 Miami canal
 WPB canal
 Ocean canal
Materials and Methods
P release
Sediments
EPC
 5 different exchanges
 7 days each
 Spike concentrations of
0.007, 0.05, 0.13, 0.27 and
0.35 m...
Results
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
0 2 4 7 7.5 9 11 14 14.5 16 18 21 21.5 23 25 28 28.5 30 32 35
Prelease(mgm-2)
Time (d...
y = -13.53 x + 1.13
R² = 0.98
-3.5
-3.0
-2.5
-2.0
-1.5
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35
Prelease/...
EPCw(mg L-1 )
Miami canal WPB canal Ocean canal
T1 0.12 0.05 0.05
T2 0.16 0.09 0.13
T3 0.12 0.08 0.08
T4 0.07 0.02 0.07
Eq...
Miami canal WPB canal Ocean canal
EPCw
(mg L-1)
Water
column
SRP
EPCw
(mg L-1 )
Water
column
SRP
EPCw
(mg L-1 )
Water
colu...
Conclusions
 Miami canal and sections of Ocean canal can serve as P source to
the water column
 P in EAA canals sourced ...
Overall Conclusions
 EAA main canal sediment properties
 Ocean canal
- Has higher mineral characteristics
- Higher pH (7...
 P release from EAA main canals
 EAA canals can sustain P release over a period 84 days
 P release is correlated with t...
P
enriched
water
P concentrations
to the STAs (ppb):
 STA 1E-182
 STA 1W-246
 STA 2-122
 STA ¾-96
 STA 5-254
 STA 6-...
Co-Advisors
Dr. Samira Daroub
Dr. George O’Connor
Committee members
Dr. Willie Harris
Dr. Patrick Inglett
Dr. Ion Ghivirig...
Acknowledgements
Thank you so much:
Thais, Ann, Chay, Kathy, Miguel, Rani, Gwen, Joan, Gaurav,
Hardev, Brandy, Sandy, Mari...
West Palm Beach Canal
Questions?
Nutrient Management in Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) Canals
Nutrient Management in Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) Canals
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Nutrient Management in Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) Canals

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The Everglades wetland is world renowned for its unique hydrogeology, flora and fauna and its scenic beauty. It is a 'World Heritage site' and an 'International Biosphere Reserve'. It's trophic status has come under threat from nutrient inputs from multiple sources. My research attempted to answer critical questions regarding the characteristics, behavior, transportability of sediments along with the flux and fate of Phosphorus in Everglades Agricultural Area canals.

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Nutrient Management in Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) Canals

  1. 1. Characterization of Physicochemical Properties, Phosphorus Fractions and P Release of the EAA Canal Sediments Dr. Jaya Das
  2. 2.  Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA)  In South Florida - between Lake Okeechobee and ENP  280,000 ha of organic soils  Sugarcane, vegetables, rice & sod  Annual 2 billion dollar industry Introduction
  3. 3. Drainage  Importance of drainage in EAA  Flat topography  Canals and pumps used irrigate and drain fields  Agricultural drainage water - farm canals – main canals – ecosystems in the south – Everglades National Park (ENP)  Drainage water contributes P
  4. 4.  Years of P loading  Accumulation of P canal sediments  Sediments as P sink or source  Internal load of P  Sediments can be transported  Can act as P source wherever are transferred  Concern for P limited ecosystem Justification  Important Questions:  What are the P release/retention potential of the sediments?  What are the factors responsible for P release/retention?  What is the extent of P release/retention?
  5. 5. Experiment - 1 P Release Potential of Canal Sediments Experiment - 2 Characterization of Canal Sediments Experiment - 3 Equilibrium Phosphorus Concentration (EPC) of Canal Sediments
  6. 6. Experiment 1 – Determination of Phosphorus Flux from Canal Sediments of the Everglades Agricultural Area
  7. 7.  Miami canal  West Palm Beach canal (WPB)  Ocean canal Objectives  Identify P release potential of sediments in the main drainage canals spread across the EAA:
  8. 8. Water Sediment Stopper Air flow from pumps  Incubation study  Intact sediment cores  Aerobic conditions  Water from 0.007 mg L-1 to 0.01 mg L-1 P  3 exchanges (28 days each)  Soluble Reactive P (SRP) Materials and Methods
  9. 9. P Flux Sediments Each canal - 4 transects Each transect - 3 cores
  10. 10. P Flux Sediments
  11. 11. P Flux Calculations  Ct = SRP concentration (mg L-1) at time t days  Ct-1 = SRP concentration (mg L-1) at time t-1 days  VT = The total volume (L) of the water column  A = Column cross sectional area (m2)  P released/retained = (Ct – Ct-1) * Vt  P flux = P released or retained/Cross sectional area [(Ct – Ct-1) * Vt]/A
  12. 12. Results
  13. 13. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 1 2 4 7 14 21 28 0 1 2 4 7 14 21 28 0 1 2 4 7 14 21 28 Prelease(mgm-2) Time (days) T1 T2 T3 T4 1st exchange (0-28 days) 2nd exchange (29-56 days) 3rd exchange (57-84 days) P Release from Miami Canal from Exchanges 1, 2 and 3
  14. 14. -100 50 200 350 500 650 0 1 2 4 7 14 21 28 29 29 30 32 35 42 49 56 57 57 58 60 63 70 77 84 Preleased(mgm-2) Time (days) T1 T2 T3 T4 2nd exchange (29- 56 days) 3rd exchange (57 - 84 days) 1st exchange (0-28 days)  Highest P release T2 and T3 ~ total 625 mg m-2 P released  Low P release – T1 & T4 ~ 200 – 325 mg m-2 P released Cumulative P Release- Miami Canal
  15. 15. 0 10 20 30 40 0 1 2 4 7 14 21 28 0 1 2 4 7 14 21 28 0 1 2 4 7 14 21 28 Prelease(mgm-2) Time (days) T1 T2 T3 T4 1st exchange (0-28 days) 2nd exchange (29-56 days) 3rd exchange (57-84 days) P Release from WPB Canal from Exchanges 1, 2 and 3
  16. 16. Cumulative P Release - West Palm Beach Canal  P release in WPB canal < Miami canal  P release in T1, T2 & T3 ~ 110 mg m-2  P release in T4 ~ 35 mg m-2 -25 25 75 125 175 225 0 1 2 4 7 14 21 28 28 29 30 32 35 42 49 56 56 57 58 60 63 70 77 84 Preleased(mgm-2) Time (days) T1 T2 T3 T4 1st exchange (0-28 days) 2nd exchange (29- 56 days) 3rd exchange (57 - 84 days)
  17. 17. 0 10 20 30 40 0 1 2 4 7 14 21 28 0 1 2 4 7 14 21 28 0 1 2 4 7 14 21 28 Prelease(mgm-2) Time (days) T1 T2 T3 T4 1st exchange (0-28 days) 2nd exchange (28-56 days) 3rd exchange (57-84 days) P Release from Ocean Canal from Exchanges 1, 2 and 3
  18. 18. Cumulative P Release - Ocean Canal P release in Ocean canal <P release in Miami canal  Comparable to P release in WPB canal  P release ranges from 75 – 200 mg m2 -25 25 75 125 175 225 0 1 2 4 7 14 21 28 29 29 30 32 35 42 49 56 57 57 58 60 63 70 77 84 Preleased(mgm-2) Time (days) T1 T2 T3 T4 2nd exchange (29-56 days) 3rd exchange (57-84 days) 1st exchange (0-28 days)
  19. 19. Conclusions  P released was much lower in the third exchange  P release from Miami canal > WPB and Ocean canal.  More questions:  What are the factors responsible for P release from EAA canal sediments?  Canals are potential sources of P to the water column.  Canals can sustain P release over a period of 84 days.
  20. 20. Experiment 2 - Characterization of the Sediments of EAA Canals
  21. 21. Objectives Determine the factors responsible for P release from EAA canal sediments by:  Characterize EAA canal sediments  Physicochemical properties  P fractions  Inorganic minerals
  22. 22. Phosphorus fractions Physiochemical properties: Total P %LOI BD pH 3 Main canals Each canal: 4 transects Each transect: 3 cores Thermogravimetry (TG) X - Ray
  23. 23. 0.1 M NaOH 17 h 0.5 M HCl 24 h Ashed @ 550oC 6 M HCl digestion 2 h 1 M KCL HCl Pi Ca and Mg-P Residual P P-recalcitrant organic compounds/minerals Sediment NaOH-Pi Fe/Al-P NaOH-Po Humic Fulvic P Labile P Wet sample equivalent of 0.3 g dry weight Residue Residue Residue Inorganic P Fractionation Scheme
  24. 24. Results
  25. 25. Selected Physicochemical Properties of EAA Canal Sediments Canal Total P mg kg-1 BD g cm-3 %LOI pH Miami 1430 a 0.26 b 26.1 ns 7.4 b WPB 1130 a 0.22 b 26.7 7.4 b Ocean 590 b 0.35 a 24.5 7.9 a
  26. 26. Sediment P Fractions 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 T1 T2 T3 T4 T1 T2 T3 T4 T1 T2 T3 T4 Miami Canal West Palm Beach Canal Ocean Canal PConcentration(mgkg-1) KCl - P NaOH - Pi NaOH - Po HCl - P Residue - P Miami Canal West Palm Beach Canal Ocean Canal
  27. 27. Sediment P Fractions  HCl-Pi largest P fraction (50-80% of Total P)  Residue-P next big P fraction (10-30% of Total P)  KCl-Pi least P fraction (0.2-2% of Total P)  NaOH-Pi and NaOH-Po (3-8% and 1-6%)
  28. 28. Canal Transect Feox mg kg-1 Alox mg kg-1 Ca mg kg-1 Mg mg kg-1 Miami T1 677 195 26000 1280 T2 661 170 17600 678 T3 906 124 8240 615 T4 606 123 24900 461 WPB T1 62.6 23 1820 213 T2 489 98 18500 754 T3 971 122 7150 1240 T4 846 123 6530 796 Ocean T1 385 99.4 22000 644 T2 169 59.9 31600 582 T3 330 122 20800 685 T4 248 59.3 32400 468 Amorphous Fe, Al and Extractable Ca and Mg of Miami, WPB and Ocean Canal Sediments
  29. 29. Variables Total P KCl-P NaOH-Pi NaOH-Po HCl-Pi Residue-P P released 0.41** 0.33ns 0.004ns 0.25ns 0.25ns 0.04ns BD %LOI pH -0.28ns 0.29ns -0.30ns Fe Al Ca Mg 0.64* 0.64* 0.42ns 0.47ns Correlation of P Release with Sediment Properties
  30. 30. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 T1 T2 T3 T4 T1 T2 T3 T4 T1 T2 T3 T4 Miami WPB Ocean PercentWeightLoss(%Wtloss) %Wt loss-OM %Wt loss-DO %Wt loss-CA Sediment Thermogravimetric Analysis Miami Canal West Palm Beach Canal Ocean Canal
  31. 31. XRD Analysis – Miami Canal 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Intensity(counts) 2θ T1 T2 T3 T4 CA AR QZ AR CA QZ SP AR CA AR CA CA AR CA AR SP
  32. 32. Canals Minerals Calcite Dolomite Aragonite Quartz Sepiolite Smectite KaolinitePalygorskite Miami √ √ √ √ √ - - - WPB √ √ - √ √ √ √ √ Ocean √ √ √ √ √ - - - XRD Analysis - EAA Main Canals  Different forms of carbonate minerals  Different Aluminosilicate minerals  No detectable P containing minerals
  33. 33. Conclusions  P release was correlated with total P  P release was correlated with Fe and Al oxides  P fractions, BD, %LOI, pH not correlated with P release  P release involves complex interaction of different chemical and physical factors  Other factors may be playing important roles generating variability in P release are the spatial distribution of CaCO3 layers, the presence of shells, resuspension etc.  More questions:  What is the extent of P release from EAA canal sediments?
  34. 34. Miami Canal Fe3+-P KCl-P Ca/Mg-P Residue-P NaOH-Po Aerobic canal water Aerobic Sediment layer Anaerobic Sediment layer Limestone bedrock • Reduction of Fe3+- P in anaerobic layer • Release of soluble Fe2+-P along with • Reprecipitation of Fe3+-P in the aerobic layer Pi Pi Pi and DOP • Possible release of Ca/Mg P by hydrolysis of organic acids or • by chelation and release of P • Microzones of low pH regions due to respiration by macrophytes • Mineralization of organic P Calcium carbonate rock fragments
  35. 35. KCl-P Ca/Mg-PResidue-P NaOH-Po Aerobic sediment layer Anaerobic sediment layer Limestone bedrock Aerobic canal water •WPB canal shallower than Miami canal •Mean canal depth: 13ft Layers of carbonates - reduces P release Fe3+-P Pi Pi Pi and DOP WPB Canal
  36. 36. Aerobic canal water KCl-P Ca/Mg-P Residue-P NaOH-Po • Mechanical barrier of shells, limestone rocks reduces P release Aerobic sediment layer Anaerobic sediment layer Limestone bedrock • Shallower than both Miami and WPB canal • Mean depth: 7.5 ft Fe3+-P Pi Pi Pi and DOP Ocean Canal
  37. 37. Surface cross-section sediment core from WPB canal Surface cross-section sediment core from Ocean canal
  38. 38. Intact cores showing subsurface carbonate layers from WPB canal
  39. 39. Experiment 3 - Determination of EPC of EAA Canal Sediments
  40. 40. Justification  Equilibrium Phosphorus Concentration (EPC)  Extent of internal load  P release when water column P concentration < EPC  P retained when water column P concentration >EPC  No P release/retention at EPC
  41. 41. Objectives  To determine the EPC values of:  Miami canal  WPB canal  Ocean canal
  42. 42. Materials and Methods
  43. 43. P release Sediments EPC  5 different exchanges  7 days each  Spike concentrations of 0.007, 0.05, 0.13, 0.27 and 0.35 mg L-1 for exchanges 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively
  44. 44. Results
  45. 45. -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 2 4 7 7.5 9 11 14 14.5 16 18 21 21.5 23 25 28 28.5 30 32 35 Prelease(mgm-2) Time (days) T1 T2 T3 T4 1st exch. 2nd exch. 5th exch.3rd exch. 4th exch. P: 0.007 mg L-1 Days: 0-7 P: 0.05 mg L-1 Days: 7-14 P: 0.13 mg L-1 Days: 14-21 P: 0.27 mg L-1 Days: 21-28 P: 0.35 mg L-1 Days: 28-35 P Release/Retention - Miami Canal
  46. 46. y = -13.53 x + 1.13 R² = 0.98 -3.5 -3.0 -2.5 -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 Prelease/retention(mgm-2d-1) Spike concentration (mg L-1) EPCw= 0.12 mg L-1 or 120 ppb Miami canal EPC (mg L-1 ) T1 0.12 T2 0.16 T3 0.12 T4 0.07 Equilibrium Phosphorus Concentration - Miami Canal (Incubation Experiment)
  47. 47. EPCw(mg L-1 ) Miami canal WPB canal Ocean canal T1 0.12 0.05 0.05 T2 0.16 0.09 0.13 T3 0.12 0.08 0.08 T4 0.07 0.02 0.07 Equilibrium Phosphorus Concentration of EAA Canals
  48. 48. Miami canal WPB canal Ocean canal EPCw (mg L-1) Water column SRP EPCw (mg L-1 ) Water column SRP EPCw (mg L-1 ) Water column SRP T1 0.12 0.03 0.05 0.06 0.05 0.06 T2 0.16 0.03 0.09 0.06 0.13 0.07 T3 0.12 0.03 0.08 0.05 0.08 0.07 T4 0.07 0.05 0.02 0.06 0.07 0.06 Equilibrium Phosphorus Concentration of EAA Canals: Incubation Experiment)  EPCw from incubation experiment predicts  P release from Miami canal T1, T2 and T3  EPCw ~ SRP in WPB all transects and Ocean canal T1, T3 and T4  P release in Ocean canal T2
  49. 49. Conclusions  Miami canal and sections of Ocean canal can serve as P source to the water column  P in EAA canals sourced from both farms as well as by internal loading  This drainage water is treated for P by the Storm Treatment Areas (STAs)  The STAs undergo regular rehabilitation to maintain their P removal capacity  Management practices and regular monitoring in the main canals particularly in Miami and sections of Ocean canal can help reduce P load to the STAs
  50. 50. Overall Conclusions  EAA main canal sediment properties  Ocean canal - Has higher mineral characteristics - Higher pH (7.9), BD, lower total P - Lower P storage 7.1 MT - Area: 6.89x105 m2.  Miami and WPB canal - Lower pH (7.4), BD, higher total P - Higher P storage 175 and 25.4 MT - Area: 9.45x105 m2, 2.03x106 m2  EAA canal sediment mineralogy  No detectable P containing minerals in EAA canals  Minerals identified were forms of carbonates and aluminosilicates USGS maps
  51. 51.  P release from EAA main canals  EAA canals can sustain P release over a period 84 days  P release is correlated with total P and amorphous Fe and Al  P fractions did not correlate with P release  This internal P load varied from 0.1 to 0.8 MT  A small fraction of total P load from EAA (129 MT) in 2009  Resuspension can lead to 20 - 30 times more P release  P transport to downstream ecosystems  Canals will continue to transport P to the downstream ecosystem by either P from farms/P release from canals and transport of particulates  STAs have to be rehabilitated to maintain their P retention capacity Overall Conclusions  Management and monitoring at both pre and post STAs are important  Management of EAA main canals can be an important factor in meeting the 0.01 mg L-1 nutrient criterion
  52. 52. P enriched water P concentrations to the STAs (ppb):  STA 1E-182  STA 1W-246  STA 2-122  STA ¾-96  STA 5-254  STA 6-264 STAs function by:  P uptake  Reduction of SRP  Reduction of particulate P by sedimentation Out flow P concentrations from STAs (ppb):  STA 1E-21  STA 1W-26  STA 2-18  STA ¾-13  STA 5-56  STA 6-93 Target concentration-10 ppb  Periodic STAs maintenances  Reduced inflow concentrations to STAs  Reduced load can enhance STA performance  Possibly can get outflow concentrations closer to target concentrations  Prolong STA longevity  Reduced cost for STA maintainance STAs WCAs and Downstream P Limited Ecosystems Farm CanalsLake Okeechobee Main Canals Farms
  53. 53. Co-Advisors Dr. Samira Daroub Dr. George O’Connor Committee members Dr. Willie Harris Dr. Patrick Inglett Dr. Ion Ghiviriga Group members Dr. Timothy A. Lang Dr. Manohardeep D. Josan Dr. Olawale Oladeji Dr. Jehangir Bhadha Ms. Viviana Nadal Ms. Irina Ognevich Funding Agency Everglades Agricultural Area-Environmental Protection District(EAA-EPD) Acknowledgements
  54. 54. Acknowledgements Thank you so much: Thais, Ann, Chay, Kathy, Miguel, Rani, Gwen, Joan, Gaurav, Hardev, Brandy, Sandy, Maria, Franciscka, Eva, David, Gary, Jose, Amanda and everyone at EREC.
  55. 55. West Palm Beach Canal Questions?

The Everglades wetland is world renowned for its unique hydrogeology, flora and fauna and its scenic beauty. It is a 'World Heritage site' and an 'International Biosphere Reserve'. It's trophic status has come under threat from nutrient inputs from multiple sources. My research attempted to answer critical questions regarding the characteristics, behavior, transportability of sediments along with the flux and fate of Phosphorus in Everglades Agricultural Area canals.

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