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Nutrition and fitness

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Nutrition and fitness

  1. 1. Nutrition and Fitness presented by Dev Ram sunuwar M.Sc Nutrition & Dietetics 1-36 1
  2. 2. Objectives At the end of the presentation, participants will be able to:- • Know about the general overview of physical fitness and its important. • Know about the how carbohydrate, fats and protein used during exercise. • Learn the role of vitamins, minerals and fluid during exercise. • Know about the sports drinks and ergogenic aids. 1-36 2
  3. 3. Outlines • Introduction of physical fitness, activity and exercise • Nutritional allowances for athletes • Intensity and sources of energy • Benefit of physical activity • Role of macro and micro nutrients during exercise • Sports drinks • Ergogenic aid • Conclusion 1-36 3
  4. 4. Introduction • Physical fitness is good health or physical condition as a result of exercise and proper nutrition • Physical activity is body movement that expends energy (kilocalories) • Exercise is formalized training or structured physical activity 1-36 4
  5. 5. Importance of Physical Fitness • Five basic components of physical fitness which must be considered to achieve optimal fitness – Cardiorespiratory endurance – ability to sustain cardiorespiratory exercise for an extended period of time – Muscular strength – ability to produce force for a brief period of time – Muscular endurance – ability to exert force over a long period of time without fatigue – Flexibility – range of motion around a joint, improved with stretching – Body composition – the proportion of muscle, fat, water, and other tissues in the body 1-36 5
  6. 6. Grouping of Sports events for Suggesting Allowances Group Average body weight (kg) Kcal/kg/day Total kcal/day Type of activity I 80 above 70 6000 Power events of higher weight category: heavy weight lifting, boxing, wrestling & judo & throwing events( hammer, shot-put) II 65 (60-70) 80 5200 Endurance events: marathon, long distance running, long distance walking, road cycling, rowing, middle & long distance swimming (200m above). III 65(60-70) 70 4500 Term events and power events of middle- weight category: hockey, football, volleyball, basketball, tennis, track cycling, javelin, badminton, handball, jumpers, sprint running, and swimming (below 200m), and water polo, middle weight category of power events like boxing wrestling, weight lifting & judo. Iv 60 60 3600 Events of light weight category: gymnastics, table tennis & poer events light weight category( 60kg & below). V 60 50 3000 Skill game: shooting, archery, and equestrian. 1-36 6 (National institute of Nutrition & ICMR, Hyderabad )
  7. 7. 1-36 7
  8. 8. Benefits of Physical Activity 1-36 8
  9. 9. How Are Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Used During Exercise? • Most energy production during cardiorespiratory exercise is aerobic • Anaerobic energy is generated for quick, intense activities that require strength, agility and speed, or a sudden burst of energy. • During the first few minutes of physical activity, the body relies heavily on anaerobic energy production from ATP and creatine phosphate (PCr) • PCr stored in muscles is depleted after 10 seconds of maximum intensity exercise; stored ATP can only support a few seconds of intense exercise • Once stores are depleted, the body relies on aerobic production of ATP 1-36 9
  10. 10. Intensity and sources of energy SN Event Duration Energy source Fuel used 1 Sprinting – 100 m dash, throws jumps, weight lifting, ski jumping, diving, vaulting in gymnastics Up to 10 sec Anaerobic- lactic ATP produced absence of oxygen Phosphate system ( ATP and CP stored in muscle) 2 Swimming -100 to 400 m, speed skating 800 m, most gym events, 100 m cycling track. 10 to 40sec Anaerobic – lactic acid system Glycogen to lactic acid 3 Swimming 100m, track 800m, canoeing 500m, speed skating 100m, floor exercise, gymnastics, alpine skiing, 1000m cycling track. 40 sec to 2min Aerobic pathway Glycogen completely utilized in the presence of oxygen 4 Middle distance swimming, speed skating, canoeing 100m, boxing, wrestling, martial arts 2 to 6 min Aerobic pathway Glycogen completely utilized in the presence of oxygen 5 Long distance tract swimming, cross country skiing, rowing, cycling, road racing Up to 2 hours Aerobic pathway Fats utilized in the presence of oxygen 6 All events at no. 5 Up to 3 hours Aerobic pathway protein utilized in the presence of oxygen 1-36 10(National institute of Nutrition & ICMR, Hyderabad )
  11. 11. ATP Formation 1-36 11
  12. 12. Carbohydrate and Exercise • Carbohydrate is the optimal fuel for exercise • Prolonged and intermittent, intense training depletes carbohydrate (glycogen) stores resulting in poor performance and fatigue. • Consume carbohydrate with every meal. • In general, carbohydrates (CHO) should always provide at least 55% of total daily calorie (TDC) intake. Ideally 50-65% of TDC. Carbohydrate is the primary energy source during high-intensity exercise (NIN) • Eat simple carbohydrates during and/or immediately after exercise – Athletes use carbohydrate loading before competition 1-36 12
  13. 13. Carbohydrate Needs* • With strength training, more CHO is required and thus less carbohydrate is recommended at 5–7g/kg/day . • For endurance training, more carbohydrate in relation to protein is needed with recommendations of 7–10 g/kg/day of carbohydrate. • ~ 500-600 gm of carbohydrates/day More intense or prolonged training requires more carbohydrate • 3 grams/lb body weight for 1 hour training • 4.5 grams/lb body weight for 2 hours training. • 5 grams/lb body weight for 3 hours training. • 6 grams/lb body weight for 4+ hours training. Sources: Bread, Tortillas, Bagels, English Muffins, Cereals, Rice, Pasta, Vegetables, Potatoes, *Fruit, Fruit Juices, Sports Drinks, Soda Pop, Crackers, Pita, Pretzels, Popcorn 1-36 13
  14. 14. Carbohydrate Loading • Moderate to high intensity for 90 minutes or longer exercising is likely to benefit from carbohydrate loading. • Sports such as cycling, marathon running, longer distance triathlon, cross-country skiing and endurance swimming benefit from carbohydrate loading. • Shorter-term exercise is unlikely to benefit as the body's usual carbohydrate stores are adequate. (Australian sports commission) • Glycogen Loading: procedure increases muscle glycogen levels more than normal (1.7 g/100 g). – Normal amount of glycogen packed in muscle: 5 g glycogen/ 100 g muscle • What is major benefit of carbohydrate loading? – Endurance capacity – Unless athlete begins competing completely depleted, exercise < 60 min requires normal carbohydrate intake • What is major drawback of glycogen loading? – Each gram glycogen stores 2.7 grams H2O, makes “heavy” fuel.1-36 14
  15. 15. Carbohydrate Loading • Classic Carbohydrate Loading – Stage 1: depletion • Day 1: perform exhaustive exercise to deplete • Days 2, 3, 4: Maintain low CHO food intake – Stage 2: loading • Days 5, 6, 7: maintain high CHO food intake – Stage 3: competition • Modified Loading • Days 1-3: exercise @ 75% VO2 max, 1.5 hrs, 50% CHO • Days 4-6: taper exercise duration, 70% CHO 1-36 15
  16. 16. Fat Needs* • Too much can cause cramps • Try to limit high fat foods before and during exercise. • Foods to avoid before & during exercise: chips, ice cream, nuts, nut butters, French fries, doughnuts, fried meats, pizza, chocolate, bologna, salami, pepperoni, burgers • In general, limit TDC intake is about 30% fat. (NIN) • In general, 20–30 % of total calories consumed should be comprised of fat. • Rich in MUFA and PUFA • Saturated fat should be limited to less than 10 % of total calories and limit trans fat. • Athletes should avoid intakes of fat less than 20 % of total energy consumed, because of the risk of reduced ingestion of fat soluble vitamins and limited intake of essential fatty acids. 1-36 16
  17. 17. Protein and Exercise • Protein is primarily needed to build and repair muscle and boost immune system. • Sources: chicken, turkey, soy burgers, fish, eggs, dried beans, beef, cheese, nuts and nut butters, pork, milk, veal, shellfish – Exercise increases cortisol which stimulates protein turnover – All active people use small amounts of protein for energy – When kilocalorie intake and carbohydrate stores are insufficient, the body relies on protein – If protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis, muscle atrophy can occur In general, 15-20% TDC intake. 1-36 17
  18. 18. Protein Needs  Most recreational exercisers can easily meet protein needs (0.8 g/kg) with a balanced diet  Endurance athletes and those doing significant resistance/strength training may need more protein  ACSM/ADA recommends:-  Endurance 1.2 to 1.4 g/kg per day  Strength athletes: 1.2 to 1.7 g/kg per day  1.3 to 1.8 g/kg of protein per day for vegetarian athletes  Excessive protein has not been shown to be beneficial 1-36 18
  19. 19. Vitamins and Minerals • Vitamin E and C –Slightly higher needs –Antioxidant properties • Thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, potassium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, and chromium needs –May also be higher (role in metabolism or sweat) • Increase intake of fruits and vegetables 1-36 19
  20. 20. Iron Needs Iron • Necessary for energy metabolism and oxygen transport • Iron deficiency affects performance • Levels may be low due to menstruation in women, intravascular hemolysis, or sports anemia (Increase in plasma volume but not RBCs) • Focus on iron-rich foods Calcium • Lost in sweat, thus losses may be high in athletes • Supplementation not recommended unless intake from food and beverage is inadequate to meet the RDA 1-36 20
  21. 21. How Does Fluid Intake Affect Fitness? • Consuming adequate fluid during exercise is essential for preventing dehydration and promoting optimal performance • During exercise, the body loses water and electrolytes (sodium, chloride, and potassium) in sweat – In hot, humid weather sweat may not evaporate and risk of hyperthermia increases – Cold weather, especially if wet, can contribute to hypothermia – The body sweats when exercising both in hot and cold weather, so meeting fluid needs is always a concern 1-36 21
  22. 22. Fluid Needs • Needs of average adults – 9 cups per day for women – 13 cups per day for men • Athletes need more (depending on sweeting • Maintenance of body’s cooling system – Water helps dissipate heat from working muscles • Avoid losing more than 2% of body weight during exercise • For every 1lb. lost replace 2.5-3 cups of fluid • To determine fluid needs for exercise  Weigh yourself before and after exercise  Consume 16–24 ounces of fluid for every pound of body weight lost during exercise 1-36 22
  23. 23. Sports Drinks For Endurance Exercise • Recommended for activity > 60 minutes –Help maintain blood glucose level and blood volume –Delay “bonking” • Supply electrolytes: Na, K, P, Cl • <60 minutes: Water adequate: –Nutrients are easily replaced by diet 1-36 23
  24. 24. Gels and Bars • Provide additional fuel • Should be taken with fluids • Expensive source of nutrients • Ideal bars for endurance athletes –Contain 40 gm carbohydrate, 10 gm of protein, 4 gram fat, 5 gm of fiber –Fortified with vitamins and minerals –Toxicities possible with overuse 1-36 24
  25. 25. Content of Energy Bars and Gels 1-36 25
  26. 26. Pre-competition • Light meal 2-4 hours prior to event • Consisting primarily of carbohydrate (top off glycogen stores) • Low fat (<25% of energy intake) • Little fiber (prevent bloating, gas) • Moderate protein • Avoid fatty, fried foods • Blended or liquid meal recommended for meals eaten 1-2 hours prior 1-36 26
  27. 27. During competition • carbohydrate should be about 25–30 g for every 30 min throughout exercise preferably of higher glycemic foods (in small amounts) or sports drinks • The concentration of carbohydrate must be maintained between 6-8%. • Fluids should be ingested on a fixed schedule during the activity, regardless of the sensation of thirst. • Excessive fluid intake at one time should be avoided. • About 250ml fluid every 15 minutes is generally adequate. 1-36 27
  28. 28. Post-competition The focus of post event meal is: Rehydration Replacement of glycogen store Restoration of electrolyte balance • Carbohydrate-rich meal within 2 hours after endurance event – Glycogen synthesis is the greatest – 1-2 gm CHO/kg body weight • Choose high glycemic index foods • Aim for 3:1 carbohydrate-to-protein • Fluid and electrolyte replacement 1-36 28
  29. 29. Can Dietary Supplements Contribute to Fitness? • An ergogenic aid is any substance that is used to improve athletic performance • Most commonly used aids include – Creatine – Caffeine – Anabolic steroids – Growth hormone – Erythropoietin 1-36 29
  30. 30. Ergogenic Aids 1-36 30
  31. 31. Ergogenic Aids 1-36 31
  32. 32. Conclusion • Cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, and body composition are the components of fitness • Both the timing of meals and the foods eaten can affect exercise performance and recovery time • Certain vitamins and minerals are a concern to athletes; supplementation is not usually necessary as adequate amounts can generally be consumed in foods • Sports drinks may be beneficial for moderate to vigorous activities or endurance sports • Dietary supplements and ergogenic aids may enhance performance, but can have negative side effects 1-36 32
  33. 33. 1-36 33
  34. 34. References • Shubhangini A Joshi., Nutrition and dietetics (3rd edition) • McArdle, William D., Frank I. Katch, and Victor L. Katch. 2000. Essentials of Exercise Physiology,(2nd edition) Image Collection. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. • Plowman, Sharon A. and Denise L. Smith. 1998. Digital Image Archive for Exercise Physiology. Allyn & Bacon. • Carmichael, Chris.(2005), The Lance Armstrong Diet, Men’s Journal, Aug. p. 38. • Melvin Williams, Dawn Anderson, Eric Rawson., Nutrition for Health, Fitness & Sport, (10th Edition) 1-36 34
  35. 35. 1-36
  36. 36. 1-36 36
  • JeniJoy1

    Jan. 14, 2021
  • ReyshylArevalo

    Dec. 2, 2020
  • JomanaMalkawi

    Sep. 18, 2020
  • DevRamSunuwar

    Nov. 20, 2018
  • ssuserf637fb

    Dec. 3, 2017

nutrition and fitness

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