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Allophone and phoneme. persentation

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Allophone and phoneme. persentation

  1. 1. By : Imas Suwangsih Mala Purnamasari Rd. Zaenal
  2. 2.  phoneme: “a basic sound unit of a language” o allophone(s): the phonetic variant(s) of a phoneme  So, each phoneme comprises a set of allophone, and each allophone is particular realisation of phoneme in a particular linguistics environment
  3. 3.  PHONEMES are the basic sounds - the significant , non-predictable ones.  The different ways the phonemes are realised in various positions are called ALLOPHONES - predictable, and nonsignificant.
  4. 4. Different language can have the same sound and yet organise them differently in their sound system. For example : 1). The phoneme /p/ of English has two allophones.  English speakers treat them as the same sound, but they are different: the first the second is unaspirated (plain). is aspirated and Plain [p] also occurs as the p in cap [kʰæp], and the second p in paper [pʰeɪ.pɚ]
  5. 5.  One, (ph), has a puff of air after the lips open, and occurs at the beginnings of words such as "pit". The other, (p), does not have a puff of air, and occurs after second word such as in "spit".
  6. 6. We can see from the other language 2). In Chinese languages treat these two phones differently; for example : in Mandarin, [p] (written b in Pinyin) and [pʰ] (written p).
  7. 7. English has there phonemes at the bilabial position.  For instance, the phone [ph] and [b] occur in the ninimal pair park [phark] versus bark [bak], And the bilabial nasal [m] in mark [mak].  They must, therefore, be allophone (variant) of different phonemes. So we nkow that there are at least there bilabial phoneme in english, and we have been able to show that the differences between [ph b m] contain significant information for speaker of that language.
  8. 8. Usually, the different ALLOPHONES of the same PHONEME are all similar to each other - they form a FAMILY of sounds. We can see this by the fact that the same difference can be allophonic in one language, and phonemic in another.
  9. 9.   We say that allophones have complementary distribution In English, s and sh are phonemes, and so have contrastive distribution.
  10. 10. PHONEMES ALLOPHONES Significant non-significant Unpredictable Predictable contrastive distribution complementary distribution broad transcription narrow transcription
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