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Touring exhibitions internationally is no longer an activity dominated by blockbuster exhibitions produced by large national museums in Europe and North America. Museums of all types and sizes, across the continents of the globe, are producing touring exhibitions for their audiences using innovative touring and business models. The benefits for museums are not merely financial. Museums receive wider exposure and reach new audiences when touring their collections or receiving a touring exhibition. Successful and sustainable partnerships are also key to the long-term benefits of developing collaborations beyond touring exhibitions.

Following the same trajectory as the museum boom in China is an increasing interest in touring exhibitions. In this participatory MuseumNext workshop delegates had the opportunity to:
- Explore the motivations, benefits and challenges of touring to and from China for museums of all sizes.
- Share their experience of touring exhibitions to and from China and learn from other participants.
- Consider and develop successful strategies for touring to and from China.
- Debunk some of the myths about touring to and from China.
- Take away practical advice for touring to and from China.

Workshop participants will have an opportunity to learn through case studies of touring exhibitions to and from China, but not just the blockbuster exhibitions that are more widely known about. Instead participants will learn about:

- Why regional museums in the UK and China are touring their exhibitions.
- Innovative touring and business models for touring exhibitions to and from China.
- The non-financial motivations and benefits of international touring.
- The myths and realities of touring to and from China.
- How to develop new networks and contacts in China.
- Available resources, advice and information on international touring exhibitions.

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  1. 1. More than British Landscapes & Terracotta Warriors: Innovative Touring Models To & From China Yu Zhang & Dana Andrew MuseumNext Europe 28 June 2017, Rotterdam @yuzhang_muse @dana_museums
  2. 2. Workshop overview • Introductions • Why do Chinese museums want to work internationally and what models are used? • Why do UK museums want to work with China and what models are used? • Facilitated interactive session • Feedback to the group and discussion • Signposting to further resources and information • Questions
  3. 3. • “China's terracotta army to invade British Museum”, The Independent • “Terracotta Army: Warriors march into British Museum”, The Telegraph • “Terracotta warriors tear down British Museum”, The Telegraph
  6. 6. AN INCREASING NUMBER OF MUSEUMS AND A GROWING ARCHAEOLOGICAL COLLECTION • China’s “museum boom” explained in facts and in figures • As of 2016, there are 4,873 registered museums in China, 363 more than the previous year; • Museums totaled 900 million visitors, up by 8.7% from the previous year; • Some 30,000 temporary exhibitions were held in museums and cultural institutions, exceeding government goal of 2020; • There is one museum per 330,000 inhabitants, exceeding government goal of 2020; • 11 805 expositions sont organisées chaque année dans les musées chinois (objectif fixé pour 2020 : 30 000 expositions annuellement).
  7. 7. HOW MANY MUSEUMS ARE THERE IN CHINA 8 147 21 214 349 407 1215 1397 1548 2300 2970 3145 3489 3789 3866 4165 4510 4873 0 2000 4000 6000 1905 1937 1949 1965 1978 1980 1991 2000 2004 2005 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Number of museums Number of museums Source: State Administration of Cultural Heritage
  8. 8. INCENTIVES RELATED TO PUBLIC FUNDING – CHINA’S MUSEUM SYSTEM IN THREE GRADES • A system introduced in 2009 to rank museums in three grades • Museums are evaluated according to quantitative criteria related to general management, facility, collection management, research, exhibitions and public services. • A re-evaluation every 4-5 years • Annual government funding depends on the rank of the museums • In 2012, there w ere100 museums ranked first-grade, 222 second-grade et 438 third- grade. According to the lastest evaluation in 2016, there are currently130 museums ranked first-grade (4 were downgraded in 2013 and 34 were promoted to first-grade).
  9. 9. Shanghai Museum First-batch Nanjing Museum THE “8 + 3” MOST IMPORTANT MUSEUMS IN CHINA Liaoning Provincial Museum Hunan Provincial Museum Henan Museum Shaanxi History Museum Hubei Provincial Museum Zhejiang Provincial Museum Second-batch Chongqing Three Gorges Museum Shanxi Museum Capital Museum Source: a 2009 policy introduced by Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Cultural Heritage for the public funding and evaluation of museums. The 11 museums were announced in two batches.
  10. 10. DIVERSIFICATION OF RESOURCES: A MUSEUM ACT IN EFFECT SINCE 2015 • Incoming temporary exhibitions to attract visitors and to boost museum product sales Example: an Egyptian exhibition at Nanjing Museum 5.4 million yuan of ticket sales (190,000 visitors over three months) and 1.03 million yuan of museum product sales (vs. 3.3 million in production costs) • Outgoing touring exhibitions: toward a way to balance costs
  11. 11. CHINA’S SOFT POWER AND CULTURAL DIPLOMACY • One Belt One Road, China’s new Silk Road • A strategy initiated by President Xi Jinping in 2013 • Geopolitical issues but also related to China’s soft power • Silk Road enlisted as World Heritage Site (China, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan at the beginning to 14 member countries) • New museums, joint archaeological missions, new exhibitions, festival, etc. among the priorities of the Silk Road Fund (an investment fund created in 2014 with 40 billion USD) and in the 2016-2020 action plan of Chinese Ministry of Culture
  13. 13. TOURING EXHIBITIONS FROM CHINESE MUSEUMS • In 2015, 51 exhibitions were organised by Chinese museums overseas and 19 international exhibitions were hosted by Chinese museums (an annual increase of 16.7%). Ongoing exchanges are ongoing with 32 countries and regions and countries in Asia remain the main partners. Source: Art Exhibitions China, ICEE China
  14. 14. TERRACOTTA WARRIORS • 10 terracotta warriors plus 110 other objects from various museums in Shaanxi, because according to national law, the number of level-1, the most important, objects cannot exceed 10% of the exhibition. • Exhibition space of at least 800m2. • Coordinated by the cultural bureau of Shaanxi Province, not only at Qinshihuang Mausoleum Museum initiative
  15. 15. • Recent itinerary: • October 2015 – February 2016 at Tokyo National Museum in Tokyo, Japan (480,000 visitors) • March – June 2016 at National Museum of Kyushu in Fukuoka, Japan (190,000 visitors) • July – October 2016 at National Museum of Art in Osaka, Japan • March 2016 – January 2017 at Field Museum in Chicago, US • April - September 2017 at Pacific Science Center in Seattle, US • September 2017 – March 2018 Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, US • Currently there is one in Kazakhstan and another one in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, US
  16. 16. GOVERNMENT-BACKED EXAMPLES OF CHINESE EXHIBITIONS • Twinning / bilateral partnerships-enabled exhibitions • French May / Festival de Croisements • 45th anniversary of the normalisation of Sino-US relations • UK-China P2P • Terracotta Warriors to Liverpool’s World Museum in 2018 and Shakespeare exhibition to the National Library of China in 2017
  18. 18. TRAVELLING EXHIBITION “A STORY OF LANTING” FROM SHAOXING MUSEUM • Shaoxing Museum, a city museum in Zhejiang Province. • It started with the 15 municipalities close to Shaoxing, in the same province from May 2013 to Dec. 2014. • It then continued to other provinces and expect and has so far reached more than 30 museums. Objective: 100 museums by 2020. • Audio-guides via WeChat are added to the exhibition when it began its national tour in 2015. • In 2017, it toured to Italy.
  19. 19. HUNAN PROVINCIAL MUSEUM: COLLECTIONS ON TOUR IN CHINESE MUSEUMS AND SCHOOLS • Hunan Provincial Museum, whose ongoing expansion work (since 2012) prompted the museum to tour its collection to other institutions around China, and also to bring its collection as a “mobile museum” to secondary schools in the countryside
  20. 20. Touring to Shanghai Museum, Inner Mongolia Museum, etc.
  21. 21. Hunan Provincial Museum’s Mobile Museum
  22. 22. Touring to and from China: where are we now? • Not only big national museums working with China • More national touring within China • Chinese-produced or themed exhibitions taking place in the UK (and elsewhere) • More long-term partnerships • Different collaboration/ partnership models • Reality check re: opportunities, resources, costs etc. • Missed opportunities
  23. 23. Why do UK museums want to work with China? • Raise the profile of their organisation internationally and nationally • Attract new and diverse audiences • Develop and share skills, knowledge and expertise • Bring a different perspective to collections, an organisation, or shared heritage • Develop long-term international partnerships • Share/ spread costs and risks • Generate income • Enhance the benefits of producing an exhibition
  24. 24. Case Study 1: Tullie House Museum & Art Gallery studies/tullie-house-goes-east-bringing-the- romans-to-china/ • Working with the Imperial Decree Museum, Xuzhou and the No.1 Scholar Museum, Suzhou (private museums)
  25. 25. Case Study 1: Tullie House Museum & Art Gallery • Resulted in a Memorandum of Understanding between Tullie House and the Imperial Decree Museum • Exploring options for spotlight loans to come from China to Carlisle • Tullie House continuing to engage Chinese audiences and local community through Chinese language website, Chinese New Year activities, China Café (culture and language), exhibition by local Chinese artist • Enabled building of partnership and support from Confucius Institute at Lancaster University
  26. 26. Case Study 2: Dinosaurs of China (Nottingham) Wollaton Hall / Lakeside Arts, Nottingham. 1 July – 29 Oct 2017 Partners: University of Nottingham (including the gallery) Nottingham City Council (museums are part of the council service) Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology in Beijing Collections from: Paleozoological Museum of China Shandong TianYu Museum Dinosaur Museum of Erlianhaote in Inner Mongolia
  27. 27. Case Study 2: Dinosaurs of China (Nottingham) Image credit: Dinosaurs of China • MoU was important and carried significant weight with Chinese partners • Exhibition underpinned existing clear strategy • Buy-in at the right level across all partners was important • Chinese speaking staff, and staff with varied experience, was vital • Scientific rigour in the curation of the exhibition
  28. 28. Case Study 3: Decode (V&A) • 20 Oct – 21 Nov 2010, CAFA Art Museum • V&A produced exhibition that toured to CAFA Art Museum in Beijing • CAFA galleries much bigger than V&A Porter Gallery • First UK-sponsored V&A international touring exhibition • Digital art exhibition that toured with AV equipment • Particular import/ export procedures for AV equipment Image credit: CAFA Art Museum, Beijing
  29. 29. Case Study 3: Decode (V&A) Image credit: CAFA Art Museum, Beijing • Extremely efficient (sometimes overly so) technical staff • Experienced transport agent • Museum staff available around the clock (literally) • The importance of dining and socialising together
  30. 30. Fact, myth or stereotype? • Everything will happen at the last minute • Chinese museums only want to exchange exhibitions • Chinese museums only want international blockbuster exhibitions • Museums outside of China only want to show highlights/ Grade 1 objects • No professional staff • No high quality exhibitions produced in China • Courier trips need to include scheduled shopping time • Business decisions are often made over, or after, dinner • “No problem!” means there is no problem > STEREOTYPE / FACT > FACT / MYTH > MYTH > MYTH > STEREOTYPE > STEREOTYPE > FACT > FACT > MYTH
  31. 31. Challenges of touring to and from China • Import and export procedures for touring exhibitions and cultural material • Language and potential for cultural misunderstanding • Working with centralised government agencies • Time and money required to build up relationships through face-to- face meetings • Working with non-government and university venues • Differing expectations of fees and cost-share models for touring • Different approaches to storytelling • Lack of market research
  32. 32. Top tips for working with China • Have a clearly defined strategy on why and how you want to work with China • Allow plenty of time to build relationships with contacts and potential partners – be patient as China is a ‘slow burn’ but also be prepared for last minute requests • Be open and flexible to different ways of working • Know who the decision makers are • Don’t take communications for granted • Be aware of cultural practices – gifts, saving face, photos, guanxi etc.
  33. 33. How could touring to China work for us? 1. In your groups, read the given organisation, background, and exhibition information. 2. Nominate one person to write notes and one person to briefly feedback to workshop participants at the end of the session. 3. Using the given information, and the questions as prompts, discuss what kinds of touring strategies might work best for the organisation you have been given today in terms of touring to China. Brainstorm your ideas as you go along on the paper provided. 4. Take your ideas and notes and complete the following sentences on the paper provided: a) My organisation’s top three motivations for touring to China are… b) Touring to China would bring the following benefits to my organisation… because… c) My organisation might face the following challenges when touring to China… because… 6. Each group will be asked to state the organisation they were given and summarise their answers.
  34. 34. Further information & resources Chinese Museums Association Exhibition Exchange Platform Museums in China! Presentations from WIRP Workshop: Working with China (ICOM UK resources) • Zhang Zikang, Deputy Director, National Art Museum of China (NAMOC) • Alex Gao, Director, Today Art Museum • Andrew Mackay, Tullie House Museum & Art Gallery • Rui Pang, International Centre for Chinese Heritage and Archaeology (ICCHA) at UCL • Working with China: Opportunities, Challenges, Solutions, Linda Rosen, China-Britain Business Council (CBBC) • Shipping to and from China: How to Avoid Hitting a Great Wall, Julie Prance, Momart • Ying Tan, Centre for Contemporary Chinese Art (CFCCA)
  35. 35. Further information & resources China Resources on ICOM UK website • Presentation Connecting Audience at the Heart of China’s Museum Boom • China-Britain Business Council (CBBC) • UK-China Connections Through Culture (CTC) • Fit for China Digital Showcasing Project • Museums in Britain with Chinese Collections China Now online resource Chinese Museums Association / ICOM China Case Study: Design in Time: "Geneva at the Heart of Time" by Capital Museum, Beijing, Museum of Art and History, Geneva & Vacheron Constantin a_Zani.pdf
  36. 36. Further information & resources Case Studies • Chinese Tour of Towards Modernity: Three Centuries of British Art • Visiting China to develop a touring exhibition (MMU Special Collections) • Tullie House Goes East: Bringing the Romans to China Guidance Articles • Top Tips: working with museums in China • Partnership Agreement Example • Developing international projects as a partnership or consortia • Managing risk to people/ reputation/ objects • International loans in and out • International tourism toolkit
  37. 37. Further information & resources Templates and resources on International Touring Exhibitions on ICOM UK website • Template International Touring Exhibitions Agreement • Fees and economic models for UK exhibitions touring internationally • A Wealth of Treasures, a guide to UK collections for international partners • Presentations from British Council workshop Write Better International Touring Contracts • Presentations from British Council workshop International Touring Exhibitions: A Beginners Guide - Developing an International Touring Strategy - Financial Planning - Finding Partners - Recce Trips - Transport & Logistics • List of international touring exhibition companies (commercial)
  38. 38. 谢谢 / thank you Yu Zhang, Museum & Cultural Heritage Consultant @yuzhang_muse Dana Andrew, Museum & Gallery Consultant, Trainer & Project Manager @dana_museums