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Impotence, sterility, artificial insemination

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Impotence, sterility, artificial insemination

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Impotence, sterility, artificial insemination

  2. 2. IMPOTENCE,STERILITY, FRIGIDITY Potency: Potency means ability to perform sexual intercourse and achieve gratification. Impotence/ Impotency: Inability of a person to perform sexual intercourse and achieve Gratification. Frigidity: Inability to initiate or maintain sexual arousal pattern in females
  3. 3. Sterility: Inability of a male to beget children In females: inability to conceive children. Or, Sterility means inability to procreate, which for women means inability to conceive during child bearing age and for men means inability to make a women of child bearing age, to conceive. Both Impotence and Sterility may co-exist
  4. 4. Medicolegal Importance • CIVIL : –Nullity of marriage –Divorce –Adultery –Disputed paternity – Legitimacy –Suit of adoption –Claim for damages
  5. 5. Medicolegal Importance •CRIMINAL: –Adultery –Rape –Unnatural sexual offences –Blackmailing –Breach of promise of marriage
  6. 6. Causes of Impotence & Sterility in males •Age: Poor physiological development of penis before puberty •Defects in development: Absence of penis •Acquired abnormalities: Amputation of penis •Local diseases: Elephantiasis, hydrocele, syphilitic chancre etc. •General diseases Infection(Tubeculosis) Metabolic disorder(DM) Sex linked hormonal disorder Neurological disease(paraplegia) •Psychic causes •Chronic exposure of poison : Lead& Arsenic •Drugs: Alcohol
  7. 7. Quoad hanc Quoad hanc is an individual, who is impotent with one particular female but not with others.
  8. 8. Causes of Impotence & Sterility in females •Age: Before Puberty and after menopause. •Defects in development:Absence of vagina, imperforated hymen etc. •Acquired abnormalities: Hysterectomy, ovariectomy, tubectomy etc. •Local diseases: Bartholin’s cyst ,gross ulceration etc •General diseases: Infective, metabolic and hormonal disease •Psychic causes: Fear or pain for intercourse.
  9. 9. Vaginismus Definite involuntary cramp like spasm of perineal muscles or levator ani or adductor muscles instead of rhythmic contractual response to orgasmic experience. It is a spasmodic contraction of the vagina due to hyperesthesia. It is a classic example of psychosomatic illness.
  10. 10. Frigidity: Inability to initiate or maintain sexual arousal pattern in females Cause of Frigidity in female • Sedative and depressive drugs • Local Conditions • Systemic disase • Neurological factors • Menopasue • Psychological causes
  11. 11. Sterilisation Sterilisation is a procedure to make a male or female person sterile, without any interference with potency.
  12. 12. Types of Sterilisation Medicoligally sterilisation is two types: •Compulsory: It is Compulsory by an order of the state. It may be carried out on mental defectives & others from a strictly eugenic point of view or as a punishment for sexual criminals. It is not done in Bangladesh. •Voluntary: –Therapeutic: To prevent danger to the health of the woman due to pregnancy. –Eugenic: Sterilisation to a physically or mentally defective person. –Contraceptive: To limit size of the family.
  13. 13. Clinically sterilisation is two type: 1)Permanent: Vasectomy(Male) Tubectomy ( Female) Exposure of deep x-rays in both sexes 2)Temporary: Condom Coitus interrupts Loop OCP Foams etc.
  14. 14. Precautions • Written consent of both wife and husband • Checkup after vasectomy(Abstain for 3 months) • Complication of contraceptive pills.
  15. 15. Difference Between Impotence and sterility Steriliy Impotence 1. Sterility is the inability of a male to beget children and in the female the inability to conceive child. 2. About 10-15% of all married couples are involuntarily sterile. 1.Impotence is the state of inability of a person to persorm sexual intercourse. 2. Almost all married couples are potent
  16. 16. Difference Between Impotence and frigidity Impotence Frigidity 1. Impotence is the state of inability of a person to persorm sexual intercourse. 2. The term s applicable for both sexes 3. Important cause os divorse in both sexes 1. Frigidity is the inability to initiate or maintain the sexual arousal pattern in female. 2. Applicable only for famale. 3. In most cases frigidity is reversible
  17. 17. Fecundation ab extra: Conception is possible without penetration of the vagina by the penis due to deposition if semen on the vulva which leads to “fecundation ab extra”, the insemination occuring due to passage of spermatozoa from the external genitalia to the uterus. McCune Albright sundrome: It is the syndrome where, the sexual organ show advance development as compared to the body as a whole. It is found in case fo gonadal or adrenal tumours, where there is excess secretion of sex hormone.
  18. 18. Artificial Insemination The artificial introduction of semen into the vagina, cervix or uterus to produce pregnancy is called artificial insemination.
  19. 19. Types of Artificial Insemination • Artificial insemination homologous/artificial insemination husband/AIH:In this type semen of the woman’s husband is used • Artificial insemination donor/AID : In this type semen of another person other than husband is used • Pooled/Artificial insemination husband and donor/AIHD: Here the semen is mixture of husband ‘s semen and donor’s semen.
  20. 20. Medicolegal importance • Adultery: The donor and recipient cannot be held guilty of adultery • Legitimacy: The husband is not the actual father of the child, and as such, the child is illegitimate & cannot be inherit property. • Nullity of marriage and divorce: • Natural birth • Unmarried woman or widow • Incest.
  21. 21. Indication of artificial insemination • When the husband is sterile • When the husband is impotent but fertile • When the husband is unable to deposit the semen in vagina • When some disease likely to be transmitted from the father to the offspring • When husband is suffering from heriditary disease • In special cicumstances Rh- incompitibility may be considered as an indication • Widow and unmarried women desiring for child
  22. 22. Procedure of artificial insemination Pre-reuisites/ Pre-cautions: • Consent of donor and his wife • Written conesnt of the woman to be inseminated and her husband • Identity not to be revealed • Donor should not know recipient • Donor must be physically and mentally healthy
  23. 23. • Donor not relative •Donor should have had children of his own • Race and characteristic of donor should resemble with husband • Couple should be psychologically fit. • Witness present at the time of insemination • Pooled semen should be preferred • Physician doing insemination should avoid delivering the child
  24. 24. Procedure of artificial insemination: • Semen is collected preferably after one week abstinence & used within about 2 hours • Usually 1 ml of semen is deposited above internal os by means of a sterile syringe, at or about the time of ovultaion.
  25. 25. Surrogate mother Surrogate mother is a woman who by a contract agrees to bear a child for someone else. Medicolegal importance: • According to contact surrogate mother cannot place future claim in the guardianship of the child • Question of legitimacy may arise • Question of adultery may arise • Question of incest may arise
  26. 26. Test tube baby • If fertilization is done in –vitro, i.e. Outside the uterus and then implanted into the uterus upto the termination of pregnancy, then the born child is called test tube baby.
  27. 27. Cloning It is the technique of producing a genetically identical duplicate of an organism artificially. First clonal creation is “Dolly the sheep”, in Scottland. Types of cloning: • Molecular cloning • Celluler cloning • Organism cloning • Reproductive cloning
  28. 28. Thanks to all
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Impotence, sterility, artificial insemination


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