Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

38

Share

Download to read offline

Identification, Forensic Radiology & Odontology

Download to read offline

Identification, Forensic Radiology & Odontology

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Related Audiobooks

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Identification, Forensic Radiology & Odontology

  1. 1. IDENTIFICATION Forensic-radiology Forensic-odontology Dr Arman Hossain
  2. 2. Identification Identification is the determination of a person /indivisuality of a person based on certain physical characteristics. Identification means establishment of indivisuality of a person. Establishing identity of a person whether dead or alive is of paramount importance. This is because an individual exists as an entity in society, and is dealt with as such by the legal system
  3. 3. Types of identification 1. Complete/ Total identification: Scientific analysis of different feature or data ultimately pinpoint of a subject. (e.g. Mr XY) 2. Incomplete/ partial identification: Recording of certain information or data, which will ultimately help complete or total identification.
  4. 4. Need of identification 1. In living person: Cases of amnesia, unconscious, imposters, issue of identity cards, passports etc. Specific ages in penal code – infanticide, criminal responsibility, rape, consent, domestic employment 2. In dead Person: To give information to surviving relatives, statistical and legal purposes, registration of death, for burial or cremation, discharge property, claim life insurance, hold inquests, facilitate police investigations etc. 3. skeletonized material 4. Intact fresh corpses, decomposed corpses, mutilated and dismembered corpses.
  5. 5. Data required for identification 1. Race, Ethnicity, religion, nationality 2. Sex 3. Age 4. Satutre, general development & body built 5. Complexion 6. Hair 7. Eyes 8. Congenital & acquired peculiarities - Malformation - Birth marks
  6. 6. Data required for identification - Moles - Scar marks - Tattoo marks - Occupational marks - Deformilties - Disease & wounds 9. Features present in the teeth 10. Photography 11. Anthropometric measurement 12. Finger print 13. DNA records 14. Teeth & bite marks
  7. 7. Reasons for establishing identity In Civil case: • Marriage • Inheritance • Passport • Insurance claims • Disputed sex • Missing person • Identification of bodies for burial purposes
  8. 8. Reasons for establishing identity In criminal case: • Accused of assault • Rape • murder • Impersonation • Interchange of newborn babies in hospital
  9. 9. Race Race: Race is a biological concept, which denotes subspecies of human being or breed or genital trait, united by a common heridity Types: 1. Caucaseans (White) 2. Negroes ( Black) 3. Mongoloids (Yellow)
  10. 10. Determination of the race of a person 1. Complexion: of limited value. Black, white, brown skin. 2. Eyes - dark in Indians, blue or grey in Europeans. 3. Clothes- dress may be helpful. e.g. Traditional indian dress(dhoti & sari) 4. Hair: Indian- Black & fine Chinese- Black & thick Blacks- Wooly, short & curly European- fair, light brown, reddish or blonde
  11. 11. Determination of the race of a person 5. Lips: Black have thick lips & slightly everted 6. Skeleton: the cephalic index (C.I)  Cephalic Index : (Maximum breadth of the skull / Max.length of skull)×100 C.I. Type of skull Race 70-75 Dolico-cephalic Pure negros, aryans 75-80 Mesati-cephalic Europeans & Chinese 80-95 Brachy-cephalic Mongolian
  12. 12. Sex Sex: Sex is the characteristics that differentiate male & female in most plants and animals.Sex refers to biological differences; chromosomes, hormonal profiles, internal and external sex organs.(e.g. Male, Female, Intersex) Gender: Gender describes the characteristics that a society or culture delineates as masculine or feminine. To summaries: 'man' = male sex+ masculine social role 'woman' = female sex + feminine social role`
  13. 13. Determination of sex of a person 1. Physical features: Sex Male Female Primary Sexual Character Presence of testes, vas deference, prostate & seminal vesicle. Presence of ovary, uterus & adnexa Secondary Sexual Character • Presence of facial & chest hair, penis • Greater muscular development • Shoulder-broader than hip • Waist- ill-defined • Breast not developed • Gluteal region- flatter • Thigh- cylindrical • Absence of facial & chest hair, presence of vagina. • Less muscular development • Shoulder- Narrower than hip • Waist- well-defined • Breast- developed • Gluteal region- Full & round • Thigh- Conical
  14. 14. Determination of sex of a person 2. Radiological studies of bones: by differentiating features of bones in male & female. 3. Histological examination: Microscopic study of sex chromatin Detection of barr body & davidson body 4. Dressing: Not always reliable 5. Gonadal biopsy: Testes- Presence or absence of sperm Ovary- Periodic discharge of ovum occurs or not 4. Hormonal study: In intersex cases
  15. 15. Barr body & Davidson body Barr Body: Females shut off one of their X chromosomes during embryonic development. The inactivated X chromosome is called a Barr body and is sometimes referred to as sex chromatin(small pleno convex mass of chromatin) Davidson body: In Neutrophils of female(sex chromosome pattern is XX) there are spherical compact masses extended from one lobe of the nucleus by a slender neck like structure, giving a drumstick appearence to the whole thing, is called davidson body. It appears upto 6% of the cell. This is absent in male
  16. 16. Determination of sex in a mutilated body 1. Presence or absence of the facial & body hair 2. Distribution of pubic hair 3. Presence of breast or other sexual organ 4. Shape of shoulder, hip, waist, butock, forearm & thigh 5. Toughness & delicacy of the skin 6. Predominance of musculatuere (male) & subcutaneous fatty tissue (Female) 7. Characteristics of bone
  17. 17. Concealed sex Concealed sex: Criminal may concealed their sex to avoid detection, by chnging dress or other method. This can be detected by physical examination
  18. 18. Intersex Intersex: It is an intermingling in one indivisual of characters of both sexes in varying degrees, including physical form, reproductive organ & sexual behaviour. It results from some defect in the embryonic development. Types of intersex: 1. Gonadal agenesis: Testes or ovary have never develpoed 2. Gonadal dysgenesis: External sexual structures are pesent, but at puberty testes or the ovaries fail to develop. It is 2 types: Klinfelter`s syndrome: (47,XXY) Turner`s syndrome: (45, XO)
  19. 19. Intersex 3. True harmaphroditism: one testis & one ovary or two testes & two ovaries are present 4. Pseudo- harmaphroditism: *Male Pseudo- harmaphroditism: Nuclear sex is XY. but sex organ & sexual characteristics deviate to female form due to testicular feminization Female Pseudo- harmaphroditism: Nuclear sex is XX. but sex organ & sexual characteristics deviate to male form due to adrenal hyperplasia.
  20. 20. Age Age before birth: It is the from conception to the delivary of a foetus. Age after birth: It si the time from birth to present. Total age: It is the summation of age before birth and age after birth.
  21. 21. Factors for determination of age of a person In post natal life: • Teeth • Ossification of bones • Secondary sex characteristics • General development in case of children • Some laboratory test In pre natal life: • Hasse`s formula • X-ray • USG • Ht of the uterus
  22. 22. Data for age determination of an adolescent girl 1. Physical/ morphological feature: Primary Sexual Character : - Presence of ovary, uterus & adnexa Secondary sexual character : - General configuaration & develpoment (waist, shoulder, thigh) - Height & weight - Distribution of body hair - Breast develpoment
  23. 23. Data for age determination of an adolescent girl - Changes in the external genitalia - Changes in tha voice 2. Menstrual history 3. Odontological history: Eruption of teeth 4. Radiological evidance: Ossification activities & growth of the bones
  24. 24. Medicolegal importance of age determination In civil cases: • Identification • Marriage contract • Impotence & sterility • Attainment of majority • Eligibility for employment
  25. 25. Medicolegal importance of age determination In criminal cases: • Criminal Responsibilities • Judicial punishment • Rape • Kidnapping • Evidance(Competency as witness) • Infanticide • Criminal abortion
  26. 26. Hasse`s formula It is a rough method of calculating the apprx age of a foetus. By this rule- • For the first 5 months of the foetus-- √ length of foetus in cm is the age of the foetus in lunar month. • After 5 month– 1/5th of the length of the foetus in cm is the age of the foetus in lunar month
  27. 27. Tattoo mark/ Tattooing Tattoo mark: Tattoo marks are designed made in the skin by multiple small puncture wounds with needles dipped in coloring matter. Dyes used in tattooing: • Indigo • Cobalt • Carbon • Cinnabar or vermilion • Prussian blue • Indian ink
  28. 28. Tattooing
  29. 29. Tattooing Complication of tattooing: • Septic inflammation • Erysipelas abscess • Gangrene • Keloid formation • Syphilis • AIDS • Leprosy • TB
  30. 30. Tattooing How tattoo mark can be erased: • Surgical method • Electrolysis • Caustic substance • Laser beam
  31. 31. Medicolegal importance of tattooing 1. Identification: Race. Nationality, occupation, religion 2. Social status of a person 3. In case of dead bodies, if the tattoo mark appears to have been obliterated, then the pigment can be detected in the nearest lymph node 4. In decomposed bodies, the invisible mark become prominent on removal of epidermis 5. Mental make up & desire of a person can be known 6. One may try to conceal his identity by artificial obliteration of the tattoo mak 7. It may cause infection, sepsis, ulcer, keloid formation
  32. 32. Dactylography/ Fingerprinting system Dactylography/ Fingerprinting system is the study of fingerprint as a method of identification Or, It is the study of ridge pattern in the skin Or, it is the process if taking the impression of papillary or friction ridges of the fingerprint, for the pupose of identification of a person Types of fingerprint: • Loop -65% • Whorl- 25% • Arch- 7% • Composite- 2-3%
  33. 33. Medicolegal importance of fingerprint • Recognition of impression left at a crime scene. • Identification of the person suffering from loss of memory. • Identification in case of accidental exchange of newborn infants. • Prevention of impersonation. • To maintain identity records. • Cheques, bank notes & other legal documents can bear a fingerprint.
  34. 34. DNA Finger printing/DNA testing/DNA typing/DNA profiling DNA fingerprinting is a technique involving chemically dividing the DNA into fragments which form a unique pattern an then matching the ‘ídentity profile’with the pattern obtained from similarly testing a suspect`s blood specimen In 1985, Dr Alec Jeffery developed DNA fingerprinting It has now been used successfully in many crime and paternity cases in worldwide.
  35. 35. Process • The process begins with a sample of an individual's DNA (typically called a "reference sample"). • The most desirable method of collecting a reference sample is the use of a buccal swab, as this reduces the possibility of contamination. • When this is not available may need to be used to collect a sample of blood, saliva, semen, or other appropriate fluid or tissue from personal items (e.g. toothbrush, razor, etc.) or from stored samples (eg: banked sperm or biopsy tissue).
  36. 36. Process 1. Isolation of DNA: DNA must be recovered from cells or tissue. Only a small amount of blood, hair, or skin is needed 2. Cutting, sizing, and sorting : Restriction enzymes are used to cut the DNA at specific places. In a process called electrophoresis, DNA pieces are sorted out by their size. Then the DNA pieces are passed through a gel made of seaweed agarose.
  37. 37. Process 3. Transfer of DNA to nylon:The DNA pieces are transferred to a nylon sheet by placing the sheet on the gel and soaking them overnight. 4+5. Probing: Adding radioactive or colored probes to the nylon sheet produces a pattern, which is the DNA Fingerprint. Each probe only sticks to one or two specific places on the sheet. 6. DNA fingerprint: The final DNA fingerprint is built by using several probes. It resembles bar codes.
  38. 38. Process
  39. 39. Importance of DNA fingerprinting • To identify a person in cases where conventional means of identification are not possible e.g. charred body • To link a suspect to a crime scene or victim. • In disputed paternity/maternity cases • In rape and sexual offences • Mass disasters • Blood or tissue mix-ups in clinical pathology • Ritual murders ( human sacrifice)
  40. 40. Superimposition Superimposition is the technique applied to determine whether the skull is that of the person in the photograph – Technique applied to determine whether the skull is that of the person in the photograph. – The photograph need not be front view of the face, even lateral and semi-lateral view of face can be useful – A recent photograph is much preferred.
  41. 41. Superimposition
  42. 42. ` Forensic radiology & odontology
  43. 43. Definition of forensic radiology/Imaging Forensic radiology/imaging is a branch of Forensic Medicine which deals with X-ray examination/imaging for determination of age, detection of fetus, diagnosis of head injuries , live birth etc.
  44. 44. Use/Importance of forensic radiology 1.Age determination : For determination of age skiagrams are taken in A/P view of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, pelvis, hip, knee & ankle joints & skull. Fairly accurate estimate of age is possible in case of a child or an adolescent. 2.Detection of foetus /Diagnosis of pregnancy : X-ray makes absolute diagnosis of pregnancy after 16the week when the ossification centers have become well developed. At a later stage, it may be of value in the diagnosis of twin pregnancy, foetal malformation or a dead foetus. 3.Missile detection : 4.Diagnosis of head injury & other fractures : 5.Diagnosis of live birth : Radiological demonstration of air in the stomach & intestine is a confirmatory sign of respiration.
  45. 45. ADULT SEX CAN BE DETERMINED FROM SKELETON. ACCORDING TO KROGMAN ACCURACY IN SEXING ADULT SKELETAL REMAINS IS:- •ENTIRE SKELETON 100% •PEVIS + SKULL 98% •PELVIS ALONE 95% •SKULL ALONE 90% •LONG BONES ALONE 80%
  46. 46. Determination of Sex • Crests and ridges more pronounced in males (A, B, C) • Chin significantly more square in males (E) • Jaw (I, E), mastoid process wide and robust in males • Forehead slopes more in males (F)
  47. 47. Determination of Sex
  48. 48. Determination of Sex from skull trait Male Female GENERAL APPEARANCE LARGER,LONGER(DOLICHOCRA NIA) SMALLER,LIGHTER,WALLS THINNER(BRACHYCRANIA) CAPACITY 1500 to1550 ml 1350 to 1400 ml FOREHEAD STEEPER,LESS ROUNDED VERTICAL,ROUNDED,FULL, GABELLA MORE PROMINENT SMALL OR ABSENT ORBITS SQUARE,LOW SET,SMALLER & ROUNDED MARGINS ROUNDED,HIGHER SET,LARGER& SHARP MARGINS SUPRAORBITAL RIDGES PROMINENT LESS PROMINENT ZYGOMATIC ARCH MORE PROMINENT LESS PROMINENT NASAL APERTURE HIGHER,NARROWER LOWER & BROADER FRONTAL&PARIETAL EMINENCE SMALL LARGER PALATE LARGE,BROAD,U-SHAPED SMALL,PARABOLA TEETH LARGER SMALLER OCCIPITAL CONDYLE LARGE SMALL
  49. 49. Determination of Sex from mandible trait Male Female GENERAL SIZE LARGER & THICKER SMALLER & THINNER CHIN SQUARE ROUNDED BODY WEIGHT GREATER AT SYMPHISIS SMALLER AT SYMPHYSIS ASCENDING RAMUS GREATER BREADTH SMALLER BREADTH ANGLE OF BODY & RAMUS LESS OBTUSE(<125) MORE OBTUSE CONDYLES LARGER SMALLER MENTAL TUBERCLES LARGE & PROMINENT INSIGNIFICANT
  50. 50. Determination of Sex from mandible
  51. 51. Determination of age from bones Determination of Age from Bones • Ages 0-5: teeth are best – forensic odontology. FONTANALLES: • Lat & occip, fontanalles - closes within 2 months. • Post. Fontanalles - closes 6-8 months. • Ant. Fontanalles – closes 18 – 24 months.
  52. 52. Age determination of a person is on the basis of data 1. Physical examination 2.Odontological examination 3.Radiological examination • Appearance & fusion activities of hundreds of ossification centers depend on race, geographic distribution & sex. Ossification may also be influenced by food habit, nutritional status, disease, hormonal & metabolic disorders, physical activity etc. • Most important age for forensic radiology 12-20 years.
  53. 53. Age determination of a person is on the basis of data Most important age for forensic radiology 12-20years. Rule of thumb for age determination on basis of fusion of the ossification centers of joints- 1.Shoulder joint -15-17 2.Elbow joint -13-16 3.Wrist joint-16-18 4.Ankle joint -14-16 5.Knee joint-15-17 6. Hip joint -15-17 7.Illiac crest -18-20 years
  54. 54. Age changes in different bone 1.Mandible 2.Symphyseal surface of the pubis 3.Scapula 4.Vertebrae 5.Skull bones
  55. 55. Forensic odontology Use/importance of odontology- 1.Age determination 2.Identification 3.Criminal investigation
  56. 56. Type of teeth Type of teeth -2 sets 1.Temporary/deciduous/milk teeth -20 2.Permanent teeth -32 (28+4) • Name of the teeth : Central incisor, lateral incisor, canine, 1st & 2nd premolar, 1st to 3rd molar
  57. 57. Age determination by odontology Chronology of appearance of temporary teeth Lower CI -6th M Upper CI-7th M Upper LI -8th M Lower LI- 9th M 1st Ms -1 Y Canines-1.5Y 2nd Ms-2 Y
  58. 58. Age determination by odontology Chronology of appearance of permanent teeth 1st Ms-6th Y CIs-7th Y LIs-8th Y 1st PMs-9th Y 2nd PM-10th Y Canines-11th Y 2nd Ms-12-14th Y 3rd Ms -17-25 Y
  59. 59. Difference between temporary & permanent teeth.
  60. 60. Thanks to all
  • DrPranabeshBharatee

    Aug. 9, 2021
  • AmulyaMedagam

    Jun. 29, 2021
  • RohitShah97

    May. 8, 2021
  • ABHISHEKkumarDATONIY

    Apr. 26, 2021
  • RaviDave13

    Apr. 22, 2021
  • ranger3

    Mar. 9, 2021
  • LloydChris1

    Jan. 16, 2021
  • SunainaKhan3

    Dec. 23, 2020
  • trishaankmalik

    Nov. 4, 2020
  • shreya205

    Nov. 2, 2020
  • RadhiAtara

    Nov. 1, 2020
  • RadhikaGupta211

    Oct. 28, 2020
  • PriyaSinha98

    Sep. 26, 2020
  • SANJIBDAS78

    Sep. 20, 2020
  • AnushkaSmily

    Sep. 7, 2020
  • SmYadain

    Jun. 20, 2020
  • JaniRudra

    Jun. 18, 2020
  • RaviKumar5399

    Apr. 24, 2020
  • SituYadav2

    Mar. 2, 2020
  • DivyaSharma557

    Jan. 9, 2020

Identification, Forensic Radiology & Odontology

Views

Total views

2,801

On Slideshare

0

From embeds

0

Number of embeds

0

Actions

Downloads

182

Shares

0

Comments

0

Likes

38

×