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  1. 1. School of Architecture, Building & Design Foundation in Natural and Built Environment (FNBE) Assignment 1: Individual Journal Name: Chan Yi Fung Student ID: 0323057 Group/session: Monday / 1p.m. - 3p.m. Course: Social Psychology (PSYC0103) Lecture: Mr Shankar Submission Date: 16 November 2015
  2. 2. 3 October2015 Journal 1 : Social Facilitation Social facilitation isaconceptthatrelatedtothe wordmotivationandimpress.The wordmotivation can be the wordbehindalot of success.If u are givena taskonlymotivationandimpresswillboost the performance tothe highestlevelwithputtingall the effortinit. Social facilitationisthe tendencyforpeopletodobetterontasks wheninthe presence of other people.Thisimpliesthat,wheneverpeopleare beingwatchedbyothers,theywill dowell onthings that theyare alreadygoodat doing.Social facilitation islikeaboostertohumanperformance andI mightbe a game changing.ThisSocial facilitationwillleadtoalarge marginof error duel to nervousnesstothe personif the taskgivenisnoteasyor not confidenttoit.The side effectof Social facilitationwill leadtodepressionif erroroccur.If isseriousthe personmightnevertrytodo somethinginacrowd because he don’twantto underlookbyotherscause of hismistake andthis mightbreakhisconfidentdeepdown.Unlesshe overcome thatincident. The social facilitationtheoryfirstcame tolightwhenNormanTriplettbegantostudycompetitive nature withchildren.Todothishe gave eachchildstringand had themwindit.Whenthe children were competing,theyweremuchmore productive.Thisthoughtmade Triplettthinkaboutremoving the competitionandreplacingitwithsome formof personwhowouldsimplyoversee the process. Gordon Allportcontinuedthe processbycreatingastudywhere people were toldtowrite listsof words(theywere told thattheywere notcompeting,buttheywere inaroom withothers).This processproved,yetagainthatpeople performbetterwhentheythinktheyhave toprove something or whentheyare in competitionwithanotherperson. In mystudylife Iam alwaysthe moderate studentinthe studysociety.Iwasnevera futsal player until Iform 2 myfriendaskme to joinhimina futsal game withhisfriendatfirstI thoughtfutsal was easy,all u needtodo isjustkick the ball to the goal.WhenI reach the pitch I playand is wasn’twhat I expectedismuchmore complicated.Rulefornew comereitherbe akeeperordefenderandI was chosento be a defender.InfirstmatchI wasmotivate bymyfriend’sfriendbecauseIamtryingto be betterthan theminthe pitch but thenI all I do isjust losingthe ball.Ikeeponplayingwiththem everyweekendbutmypositionisstill adefender.Afterperiodof time Ilearnedaloton the pitch and nowI am the bestdefenderamongall myfriendwheneverthere isanew teamthat joinedus,I am alwaysmotivatedbytheirappearance.The strongertheyare the more motivatedIam.Now my favourite sportisfutsal.
  3. 3. Social facilitationoccur,thishave tostart withcomputergames.Istartedto playcomputergames whenI was7 yearsoldthe firstgame I playedisbomber-manthisisamultiplayerandIplayeditwith my sister.Until then,myfriendintroduceme amassive multiplayeronline game namedDotaatfirst I treat thisgame as a game to relax myself butthe more Iplaythe more I get usedtoit and the more I getseriousaboutit whenIplay.Till now Dota isnot justa game to me but a challenge.WheneverI playwithmy friendIfeel motivatedandIwantto be the bestandthe mostwell performplayerin the team. For normal persondrivingisjusta skill thatshouldbe requiredbutforme Ithinkdifferently.Forme drivingisnotonlya skill buta hobby.I like todrive aroundthe citywithmy favourite musicturnon and enjoythe viewof cityandstreets.Ialwaysmotivatedbydriverthatequipbetterdrivingskill than me and improve mydrivingskilltothe nextlevel.Notmatterwhatcar we are drivingaslongas we learnedsomethingthoughtoutthe journeyandenjoyit. Hence conclusion,Social facilitationislikea dice sometime umightget6 but sometimesumightget onlyjust1. When u are energize andmotivatedandugetto impressthe otherthenthe outcome for it isa six.Whenu are energize andmotivatedbutthe erroroccur and it mightbe a breakerforhis confidential.Forme Social facilitationisboostthatcanpush me off the ceiling.
  4. 4. 5 October2015 Journal 2: Social Comparison Comparisonisa processthat people usuallydon’treallylike becausecomparisontherewillbe one bad and good.Comparisonisbasicallyaprocessthatbringintwo or more personand compare with each other’sstandardinmanyway.Comparisonbetweentwoormore personmake people feel inferior,disrespectful,frustrated. For whatI feel aboutthe wordcomparison,we can’treallycompare a personwithanotherbecause everyone hassomethingthattheyare goodand bad.We can onlycompare stuff and significantbut we can compare feelinglikehappy,sad,love,painandmore.The thingwe can’tcompare ismore importantthanthe thingwe can compare.Social Comparisoncanleadtomotivation,self-enhance, depression. Social comparisontheoryisdevelopedbyLeonFestinger.Festinger’stheoryof Social Comparison. The study of Social Comparisonwasinitiatedbythe social psychologistLeonFestinger(1954).In his model,Fes-tingeroutlinesthe central processesunderlyingthe formationof the beliefsaboutone's ownabilitiesandopinionsheldbyaperson.Social comparisontheorystatesthatwe determineour ownsocial and personal worthbasedonhow we stack up againstothers.Asa result,we are constantlymakingself andotherevaluationsacrossavarietyof domains(forexample, attractiveness,wealth,intelligence,andsuccess).Mostof us have the social skillsandimpulse control to keepourenvyand social comparisonsquietbutourtrue feelingsmaycome outinsubtle ways.We can enhance ourself-esteembyfeelingbetterthanotherpeopleoritcouldbe vice versa. GoethalsandDarley(1977) definedsimilarityintermsof relatedattributes.Therefore,comparisons are more useful whenthe comparisontargetsharesrelevantattributes(forexample,genderorage) withthe personcarryingout the comparison.Comparingone'smathperformance withthe math performance of a same age studentismuch more informative thancomparingthe math performance withayoungerorolderstudent. Social Comparisonalwaysexistbetweenstudentsnomatterinwhatgrade. Asa studentI understandwhy.Some of the studenttheywill askuaboutthe grade and comparedaboutit, this situationdoesn’tonlyexistbetweenstudentandtheirparentwill dothe same bycomparingtheir child’sresultwithothers. Justrecentlymyeconomicslecturegave usa test.I get34 over40 forthe test,I wassurprise there issomeone inthe classwholiterarygetfull markforit.I comparedmy resultandI motivatedtostudyevenharderbecause I feel thattheircando it whyI can it. Inthe
  5. 5. otherway roundI comparedmyresultwiththe studentthatget lowergrade thanme and my self- esteemisenhance. I am a huge fan of Star Wars. WhenI wasa kidthe firstthingthat comesto mindfromthe movie is the lightsabre carryby sithand jedi.Itattractive cause of the glowingcolour,abilitiesandstuff. RecentlyElectronicArtandDice justreleasedStarWars Battlefrontbetaforplayertotry out.I invitedfewof myfriendthatare skilledinshootinggamestoplaywithme.Iplayedwiththemfew timesandtheirscore are alwayshigherthanme and my deathare alwayshigherthankills.Ifeel depresswhenIcomparedmyscore withthem, because we usedothersasthe standardby whichwe compare ourselves.Myself-esteemdiminishbycomparingmyfriend’sscore andmine. Nightmarketas we call in BMis pasar malam.I like walkalongthe nightmarketwithmyfriend,chat aroundand buysome streetfood.There isone day I wenttothe nightmarketwith myfriendandI encounterthere isone childrenroughlyaround10 – 12 walkinginthe nightmarketaskingpeopleto buyprawn crackers.WentI and my friendare leavingthe nightmarketwe saw thatgirl again and the amountof prawncrackers on herhand isthe same whenwe firstsaw her. I and my friend bought2 pack of prawn crackersfrom herin orderto helpherup.On the journeybackhome I comparedmy life andherlife.WhenIwasaroundthat age andthistime I wouldbe inthe shopping mall withmy parenthavinga joyful familytime.Insteadthatgirl issellingprawncrackersinthe night market.I am grateful thatI am born ina good familyandIfell happydeepdownfrommyheart. Againforwhat I feel we peopleshouldn’tcompare witheachother. There isaquote inChinese 人比 人, 气死人meanthathumancomparingwitheachotherinthe endonlysuffertheywill get.
  6. 6. 8 October2015 Journal 3: Counterfactual Thinking ThispsychologyconceptCounterfactualThinkingisincludeaveryimportantword“imagine”. Imagine meancreate somethingthatisnotreal that onlyexistinthe mind.Imagine isawordthat createda lot of impossibleinthisworld.Ourentertainmentare createdfromthe imaginationfor example superheroesmovie are all imaginationof the comicwriter. The technologywe usedtoday isa conceptthat imaginedbysomeonethenstartedtodevelopthe conceptasgroupuntil todayand thisishow newtechnology keeponimproving. For whatI thinkaboutthis Counterfactual Thinkingisaprocessthatwill happentomostof the people whentheyencounteranegative event.Theywill rethinkwiththe line “whatif I”and if “I had only”thenimagine the outcome ina positive way.Forsome of the eventwe mighthave a chance to regretwhatwe done exampleanaccidentoccur duel todrivingrecklesslyanditonlycostdamage to the car, Inthiseventthere isa chance for u to regretand say I will be more careful forthe nexttime . For some seriouseventexample accidentlykill someonewhenthe angerisuncontrollable,inthis eventevenuregretforwhat u have done butthere isno turningback. Counterfactual thinkingisaconceptinpsychologythatincludesthe humanpropensitytomake conceivable distinctoptionsforeveroccasionsthathave asof now happened;somethingthatisin oppositiontowhatreallyhappened.Counterfactual intuitionispreciselyasitstates:"countertothe actualities."Thesecontemplationscomprise of the "whatif i?"andthe "if I had only..."thathappen whenconsideringhowthingscouldhave turnedoutinan unexpectedway.Counterfactual contemplationsare thingsthatcouldneverhappeninall actuality,onthe groundsthatthey exclusivelyrelate tooccasionsthathave happenedbefore.Thispsychologyconceptiscreatedby KahnemanandMiller(1986) proposedthe normtheoryas a theoretical basistodepictthe method of reasoningforcounterfactual thoughts.Normtheoryrecommendsthat the simplicityof envisioninganalternate resultdecidesthe counterfactual choicesmade.Standardsinclude a pairwise correlationbetweenanintellectualstandardandanexperiential result.Aninconsistency evokesanemotional reactionwhichisimpactedbythe size andbearingof the distinction.For instance,if aservermakestwentydollarsmore thana standardnight,a positive influencewillbe evoked.Inthe eventthatanunderstudygainsalowergrade than isordinary,a negative influence will be evoked.Forthe mostpart,upwardcounterfactualsare likelytoresultinanegative state of mood,while downwardcounterfactualsinspire positive mood.
  7. 7. WhenI firstjustget mylicence mydad tookme to a drive sothat I can improve mydrivingskills.My dad ask me to drive himfrommyhour to my aunthouse inUSJ5. Onthe wayI was drivingquite fast, my dadkeepon remindingme don’tdrivingfastandalwaysalertthe surroundingduel Iamnotan experience driverbutIdidn’tlisten.WhenIwasonthe road I am onthe middle lane andIjustdrive to the leftlane withoutlookingthe side mirrorandaccidentoccurred.The guycame downfromhis car andsaid “howcan u justdrivingintootherslane asu wish”my dad managedtosettle withhim by promise topayfor the car damage.Onthe waymy dad didn’tscoldme butexplainthe mistakeI make and he said“is ok to make mistake forthe firsttime andlearnfromthe mistake udone and neverrepeatit”.UpwardsCounterfactual occurwhenIreachedhome I went upto my roomand rethinkIshouldlistentomydad inthe firstplace thenaccidentwon’thappeninsteadIfollow my ego. I go throughmy primaryschool dayswithmostlybadacademics.UPSRis an examthateverykid shouldsitbefore enteringsecondaryschool.Istudy3 daysbefore UPSRand my momtoldme if I fail thisUPSR I will have totake studyanotheryearbefore goingintosecondaryschool.Iwentintothe examhall withoutfearandtake the examon.Afterthree daysof the examisfinallydone.I enjoy dayswithoutstudies.Justone weekbefore myUPSRresultreleaseddayIstartedto worried.Onthe UPSR releaseddayIsawI myresultI getan A and othersall are B andC. I rethinkif I putin effortmy resultcouldbe flyingcolour,inthe otherwayroundI toldmyself Istudyforthree before the exam and at leastI managedtoget an A andpassedthe exam. SometimesCounterfactualThinkingimprove orworsenmymoodbutI use thisconceptfrequentlyin my life.
  8. 8. 12 October2015 Journal 4: First Impression Nowa days our societyjudge apersonwithfirstimpressiontheysaw fromthe person.If the person aren’twearingsomethingnice meanhe mostprobablypoor,if the personwithtattooall aroundhis bodyhe most probablya gangster.Thistwoexample are the schemasforhow now a day we people judge othersbyfirstimpressions.Inthe otherwayroundhe mightfeel aslongas the cloth is comfortthenis ok,the personwithtattooaround hisbodydoesn’tmeanthathe is a gangster. From my pointof viewof thisconceptFirstImpressionsisamassage u receive fromthe personu don’tknow.I don’tobserverathowtheydressor whethertheysmoke ornotinsteadIobserve in other.Howcan we getthe massage?Bylookingatthe personaction,behaviour,walkingstyleand talking.All three criteriaImentionrepresentthe personalitypersonbecausethatwhathe is.For example inthe ancientChinadynasty,primeministeristhe mostsecondpowerpersoninthe country.Prime ministerequipthe skilltoknow the personattitude andpersonalitybyjustobserver at the person’scriteriahowhe act,behave,walkandtalk.Prime ministerequipskillsistochoose a rightpersonto accomplishthe jobassignbythem, withthisskillstheywill notassign the jobtothe wrongperson. In psychology,afirstimpressionisthe occasionwhenone individual firstexperiencessomeone else and formsa mental image of that individual.Impressionaccuracyvariesrelyinguponthe observer and the objective example individual,object,scene,andmore beingobserved. Firstimpressions dependonan extensive varietyof qualities:age,race,society,dialect,sex,physical appearance, accent,stance,voice,numberof individualspresent,andtime permittedtoprocess. The early introductionspeople provide forotherscouldincrediblyimpacthow theyare dealtwithandsaw in numerousconnectionsof ordinarylife. AlfredAdlerdevelopedapsychologytheorycalledIndividual Psychology.The term"individual psychology"doesnotmeantofocuson the individual.AlfredAdlersaidone musttake intoaccount the patient'swhole environment,includingthe people the patientassociateswith.The term "individual"isusedtomeanthe patientisanindivisiblewhole.ThisIndividual Psychologyisrelated to the FirstImpression. Accordingtoindividual psychologyeachandeveryactionthatwe take,even if thisactionwas uselesssuchasprocrastination.Sowhatdoesthishasto do withthe psychologyof firstimpression?Muchthe same as we dothe activitiesthatassistsuswithcomingtoour objectives we assessthe looksof othersby figuringouttowhat degree canthose individualsassistuswith psychologyobjective.Inthe eventthata man detestslazinessandinthe eventthathe was
  9. 9. mistakenlytaughtbythe mediathatcorpulentindividualsare lethargicthenhe mayneverbe pulled into stout individuals.Thisisacase of how mutilatedconvictionsaboutsomethingcaninfluencethe firstimpressionwe formof individuals. My dadis a contractor inhis earlytime.Mymom isa workerin a tilesshop.Mydad alwayswentto the shopfor tilesforconstructionpurpose.There isone daymydad came to the shoponlunch time to collecttiles.He sawmymom didn’twentforlunchand he started a conversationDad: “Why aren’tu goingto lunch?”, Mom : “There are many file toworkon” , Dad : “Come letgo lunchI treat u” , Mom : “OK” . That howtheystartedtheirrelationship.Aftersome periodmymombroughtmy dad to meetherparentsandsiblingsatherhouse.My dad’sappearance isnot fancyat all,justa shirtwithlongpant andwithhisworkingboots.The firstimpressionformymom’ssiblingisthatmy dad isa smoker,drinkerandothernegativestuff duelhisworkingenvironment.Butmydad was nevera smokeranddrinkeruntil now. There isa time Iwas chillingwithmyfriendinthe mamakstore andwe chat abouthighschool’s time.Iask my friendabouttheirfirstimpressionsof me.All of themhave the similaranswer.They toldme that whentheyfirstsawme theythoughtthatI am veryseriouskindapersonbecause I don’treallysmile topeopleIdon’tknow andI alwayshave the seriousface.Theysaid: “After knowingme fora fewday confirmuwill sure getscoldmyteacherduel laughinginthe class”.I am crazy bombbecause I alwaysmake upstupidjoke froma simple thing. Firstimpressionforcanletus understandapersonfromit outside butmore importantlyisto understandthe personfromitinside.
  10. 10. 15 October2015 Journal 5: Observational Learning The main keywordinthe psychologyconceptof Observational Learningisthe wordobservational. Observerisa personwhowatchesandnoticessomething.Mostof the people thinkthat Observational Learningisanimportantprocessforchildrenbutforadultsandteenagersitcarry the same importantweight. For whatI feel aboutthispsychologyconceptObservational Learningisthe mostbasicof learning. Whena baby isstartingto learnsomething,itwill startwithobservefirst.Babiesdon’tknow how to speakand the onlythingthathelptheminlearningwhentheyare youngage isobserve. Observational Learningisveryimportantforthe childrenlearningintheirearlystage of learning,it will affectthe children’scharacteristicanditfuture.Whensomethinggetsapersonattentionthen the personwill startto observe the processandanalysiswhatisgoingonand whywill thishappen and thisispart of the learningprocess.Mydad alwaystell me toobserve whatothersare doingno matterwhat thenwe analysisthe informationwe receive,if isgoodthenwe willlearnfromit,if is bad we will keepitasmemoriessothatonce we encounterthe same scenarioandstraightawaywe knowit isbad.That’s the way we keeponimprove ourselvessothatwe won’tfall backbehind comparedto others. Observational Learningisbasicallyobservingthe others(models) engageinbehaviourandthe repeatingthose action.Thistheoryisdevelopbyapsychologistname AlbertBandura(1977). Observational Learningisatype of social learningwhichtakesdifferentforms,basedondifferent processes.Inhuman,thistype of learningseemtoappearsnotrequire supporttohappen,but instead,requiresasocial model,forexample,parent,sibling,friend,orteacher.Especiallyin childhood,amodel issomeone of higherstatusorauthority.Increatures,observationallearningis oftentakingintoaccountestablishedmolding,inwhichanatural conductis inspiredbywatchingthe behaviorof another(e.g.mobbinginbirds),howeverdifferentprocessesmaybe includedtoo. Bandura's social cognitive learningtheorystatesthatthere are fourstagesinvolvedinobservational learningattention,retention,initiation,motivation.InhisfamousBobodoll test,Bandura demonstratedthatyoungchildrenwouldfollow the aggressiveandviolentactivitiesof anadult model.Inthe experiment,youngsterswatchedafilminwhichanadultoverand overhita big, inflatable balloondoll.Afterwatchingthe videoclip,childrenwereallowedtoplayinaroom witha real Bobo doll simplylike the one theyfoundinthe video.WhatBandurafoundwasthat children will probablyfollow the stepof the adult'sviolentactivitieswhenthe adultdidn'treceive any consequencesorwhenthe adultwasrewardedfortheirviolentactivities.
  11. 11. In 2008 Chinese New Yearmydadbroughtme togetherto visitone of hisoldfriend.Whenwe first reach hishouse he wasverypolite andinvitedusin.Afteranhourof conversationbetweenhimand my dad,hiscell phone rang.He answerhisthe call,he useda lot of swearwordswhile he isonthe phone call.Afterdone answeringthe phone call he andmydad continue withthe conversationfor half an hour thenwe decide toleave.Onthe wayback home mydad toldme don’tnot to swearlike hisfriend.Mydad explainedtome whyswearingtoomuchis badit isbecause whenusweartoo much itwill become the nature wayof u speakingandthiswayof speakingwill representyouras uncivilizedanditmightbe affectyourfuture.Mydad gave me an example:if yourbossare having conversationwithuandout of suddenu accidentallyusedaswearwordbecause u are so usedto it and itmightgive bad impressiontoyourboss.After 5 yearsmy dad decide togive hima box of mandarinorangesonChinese NewYear.Whenwe reachhishouse,Irang the doorbell andItry to pass hissonthe box of orangesbut the doordidn’topenupso hisson shoutedonhisbrother“ Diu can u fuckingopenthe doorthere issomeone out”thenthe door openupaftera few secondhisson shouted.Iand mydad leftstraightawayafterpassinghimthe box of oranges.Ifeel thatwayof his son speakisobservationallearningfromhisfatherduel tohisfather oftentosweara lotwhile ina conversation. Conclusion,Observational Learningforcanbe the majorcause of a person’scharacteristic.LastlyI have to say fora childrenbehavioural change iseasybutforanadult behavioural change isveryhard because theyare so usedto italready.Thatwhy everychildren’smodelmustequipgood characteristic.

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