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Minerals by Muazam Ali Khan & Bilal dear

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Minerals by Muazam Ali Khan & Bilal dear

  1. 1. Minerals
  2. 2. Sodium  Chief cation of extracellular fluid  50% present in bone  40% in extracellular fluid  10% in soft tissue
  3. 3. Biochemical function  Blood pressure  Sodium regulates the body’s acid base balance  Necessary for cell permeability  Necessary for initiating and maintaining heart beat  Sodium, meanwhile, allows your small intestine to absorb amino acids, glucose and water from the foods you eat
  4. 4. RDA value  5-10 g/day  Patient of hypertension, around 1g/day
  5. 5. Sources  Common salt  Ingested food  Bread  Whole grains  Leafy vegetables  Nut  Eggs and milk
  6. 6. Absorption  Readily absorbed in the GIT  Little of it is found in feces <2%  In diarrhea, large quantities of sodium is lost in feces
  7. 7. Plasma sodium  Normal conc. Is 135-145 mEq/l  Sodium is extra cellular cation therefore blood cells contains less(35 mEq/l)  Excretion  Urine and less in feces  The conc. Is controlled by aldosterone antagonist to ANP
  8. 8. Disease states  Hyponatremia. serum sodium level falls below normal  sodium deficiency can cause muscle cramps  Causes diarrhea,vomitting,chronic renal disease Addison's disease  Also observed in edema  Manifestation of hyponatremia include reduce blood pressure and congestive heart failure
  9. 9. hypernatremia  Increase in serum sodium level  Symptoms blood volume and blood pressure  Occur due to 1. Cushing’s syndrome 2. Prolonged administration of cortisone 3. Diabetes insipidus 4. Pregnancy placenta and steroid cause sodium and water retention
  10. 10. Potassium  Intracellular cation
  11. 11. Biochemical function  Intracellular osmotic pressure  Acid base balance  Pyruvate kinase k+ for optimal activity  Transmission of nerve impulse  Necessary for proper biosynthesis of protein by ribosome's  Extracellular k+ influences cardiac muscle activity
  12. 12. Sources  Banana,orange,pineapple,potato,beans chicken and liver
  13. 13. absorption  Absorption of potassium from GIT is very efficient(90%)  Very little is lost through feces  Diarrhea ,good proportion lost
  14. 14. Plasma potassium  3.4-5.0 mEq/l
  15. 15. Excretion  Mainly through urine  Maintenance of body acid base balance  Influences potassium excretion  Aldosterone increase excretion of k
  16. 16. Disease states  Hypokalemia  Decrease k+ in serum  Occur due to  Cushing’s syndrome and prolonged cortisone therapy  Iv administration of k+-free fluid  Diarrhea and vomiting
  17. 17. Symptoms  Muscle weakness  Tachycardia  Cardiomegaly  Changes in ECG are observed
  18. 18. hyperkalemia  Increase in the concentration of serum potassium observed in renal failure  Severe dehydration  Iv fluid with excess of potassium  Diabetic coma
  19. 19. symptoms  Numbness  Reduce heart sound  Changes in ECG
  20. 20. Chlorine  Chlorine is a constituent of chloride  Therefore the metabolism of chlorine and sodium are intimately related
  21. 21. Biochemical function  Formation of HCl  Salivary amylase is activated by chloride  Acid base balance
  22. 22. Dietary requirement  Requirement of chlorine as nacl is  5-10mEq/l
  23. 23. Sources  Common salt  Whole grains  Leafy vegetables  Eggs  Milk
  24. 24. Plasma chloride  95-105 mEq/l  CSF contain higher level of chlorine 125mEq/l
  25. 25. Absorption and excretion  Totally absorbed in GIT  Excretion through urine
  26. 26. Disease state  Hypochloremia Vomiting,diarrhea,rspiratory alkalosis Addison’s disease and excessive sweating Hyperchloremia Dehydration Respiratory acidosis Cushing’s disease

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