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Hospital acquired infections

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microorganisms which is mainly associated with hospital acquired infection

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Hospital acquired infections

  1. 1. Presented by Irfan Bashir MLT 3rd Year
  2. 2. • Hospital acquired infection is also called Nosocomial infection • Nosocomial infections are infections which are a result of treatment in a hospital or a healthcare service unit, but secondary to the patient's original condition. Infections are considered Nosocomial if they first appear 48 hours or more after hospital admission or within 30 days after discharge
  3. 3. 1. Bacteria 2. Viruses 3. Fungi
  4. 4. • Gram +ve Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermidis • Gram -ve Enterobacteriaceae Pseudomonas aeruginosa Acinetobacter baumanni Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  5. 5. • Blood borne infections : HBV, HCV, HIV • Others: rubella, varicella, Fungi • Candida • Aspergillus
  6. 6. 1. Urinary tract infections (UTI) Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Serratia, Proteus spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus spp, Candida albicans 2. Surgical wound infections (SWI) Staph aureus,Streptococcus pyogenes,E.coli, Proteus spp,Anaerobic bacteria, Enterococcus spp, Coagulase negative Staphylococcus 3. VAP( ventilator associated pneumonia ) 4. CLABSI(central line associated blood stream infection)
  7. 7. 5. MDRO(Multi drug resistant organisms) MRSA,Klebsiella spp,Proteus spp,Pseudomonas spp
  8. 8. 1. Contact/hand borne (most common) 2. Aerial route or air borne 3. Oral route 4. Parenteral route 5. Vector borne
  9. 9. • A susceptible host and appropriate inoculum of infecting microorganism with an appropriate route of transmission contributed in majority of cases
  10. 10. • From respiratory tract via talking, coughing, sneezing • From the skin by natural shedding of the skin scales during would dressing or bed making. • From aerosols from equipment, respiratory apparatus, air-conditioning plants.
  11. 11. • In direct contact spread from person to person • By indirect contact spread via contaminated hands or equipment. • Clothing of staff, Urinary catheters, contaminated with hands of the operator may introduce organisms, or patients own flora from urethra may contribute to infection.
  12. 12. • The accidental transmission of infections as HIV, HBV,and HCV by needle stick injuries is documented • Syphilis and malaria a concern in high prevalence areas
  13. 13. • Surgeons punctured surgical gloves, or moistened gown, imperfectly sterilized surgical instruments, or by airborne theatre dust. Faulty wound dressings may cause infections.
  14. 14. • Hospital environment, includes defective constructions, Objects, food, water, Air in the hospital too contribute to infections
  15. 15. • The basic responsibility of any good hospital remain with establishment of good infection control policies, which can always be achieved with • 1 An infection control committee • 2 An Infection control team
  16. 16. • Should meet regularly to formulate and update policies for the whole hospital on all matter which have bearing on infection control and to mange outbreaks of Nosocomial infection
  17. 17. • Which will function under the guidance of Infection control Doctor.(community medicine) • A Medically qualified Microbiologist, who will take responsibility of day to day for the policies formulated
  18. 18. • To do surveillance and infection monitoring of hygiene practices. • Educate the Medical and Paramedical staff on policies relating to prevention of infection, and safe procedures
  19. 19. • Is the key member of the team • Maintain the close working relations between Microbiology Laboratory, different clinical services and supportive services like laundry, pharmacy and engineering
  20. 20. • Hand hygiene 1 Hand washing 2 Hand rub
  21. 21. • PPE (personal protective equipment) • Decontamination and Sterilization
  22. 22. • Aseptic technique  A no touch technique when dealing with sterile equipment coupled with strict personal hygiene.  A strict rules laid when dealing the patients in the operation theatre and other procedures such as wound dressing and insertion of IV

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