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Introduction to G-Code
Programming
Computer Integrated Manufacturing
Unit 2: CNC Machining
In this lesson:
Review Coordinate Geometry Basics
Identify common Terminology
Examine G and M - Code language
Provide oppo...
Rectangular Coordinate System
X-axis
Y-axis
Origin
.125 inch spacing
A (X,Y)(1,.875)
(1.000,1.000
)(-1.125,.625)
(-.375,-.500)
(.750,-1.000)
Ordered Pairs
A
B
C
D
3D Coordinate System (X,Y,Z)
X-axis
Z-
axis
Y-axis
Basic Machine Axes: 3 axis
Milling Machines: 3 axis
X – axis (table left and
right)
Y – axis (table in and out)
Z – axis (...
Additional Axes
A – axis (angular axis about X - axis)
B – axis (angular axis about Y – axis)
C – axis (angular axis about...
Milling Machines: 4 axis
Terminology
NC – Numerical Control
CNC – Computer Numerical Control
DNC – Direct Numerical Control
APT – Automatic Program...
Download Code Sheet
Click here to open Code Sheet
G - Code Programming
G – Code Programming
Originally called the “Word Address”
programming format.
Processed one line at a...
Common Format of a Block
Sequence
#
Preparatory
Function
Dimension
Words
Feed
Rate
Spindle
Function
Tool
Function
Misc.
Fu...
Word Address 1
N – Sequence or line number
A tag that identifies the beginning of a block of
code. It is used by operators...
Word Address 2
Dimension Words
X – Distance or position in X direction
Y – Distance or position in Y direction
Z – Distanc...
F – Feed rate (inches per minute or millimeters per
minute)
Rate at which cutting tool moves along an axis.
S – Spindle sp...
I – Circular cutting reference for x axis
J – Circular cutting reference for y axis
K – Circular cutting reference for z a...
G Word
G words or codes tell the machine to
perform certain functions. Most G
words are modal which means they
remain in e...
Common G Codes
G00 – Rapid positioning mode
Tool is moved along the shortest route to
programmed X,Y,Z position. Usually N...
Common G Codes, con.,
G17 – XY plane
G18 – XZ plane
G19 – YZ plane
G20 – Inch Mode
G21 – Metric Mode
G28 – Return to axis ...
G Codes: G90, G91
G90 – Absolute Coordinate Reference
References the next position from an absolute
zero point which is se...
G Codes: Canned Cycles
G80 – Cancel canned cycle
G81 – Drilling cycle
G83 – Peck drilling cycle
G84 – Tapping cycle
G85 – ...
Canned Cycles: G81
G81 – Drilling Cycle
Feed to depth, rapid return
Example of program code:
N35 G81 X.500Y.500Z-1.000 R.1...
Canned Cycles: G83, G84
G83 – Peck Drilling Cycle
Feed to an intermediate depth, rapid out, rapid
back to just above previ...
Canned Cycles: G85, G86
G85 - Boring Cycle
Feed to depth, feed back out.
G86 – Boring Cycle
Feed to depth, rapid out.
G Codes: Cutter Compensation
G40 – Cancel cutter diameter
compensation.
G41 – Cutter compensation left.
G42 – Cutter compe...
M Word
M words tell the machine to perform
certain machine related functions,
such as: turn spindle on/off, coolant
on/off...
Common M words
M00 – Programmed pause
Automatically stops machine until operator pushes a button
to resume program.
M01 – ...
M03 – Turn spindle on
In clockwise direction
M04 – Turn spindle on
In counter clockwise direction
M05 – Stop spindle
Usual...
M08 – Turns Accessory 1 on.
M09 – Turns Accessory 1 off.
M10 – Turns Accessory 2 on.
M11 – Turns Accessory 2 off.
M30 – En...
Zero Points
Part Zero
– Used for absolute programming mode.
– Usually a position on the part that all absolute
coordinates...
Cutter Path Generation
Cutter path is generated by moving the
tool from point to point. The points are
previously defined ...
Interpolation
Method of determining intermediate
points along a cutting path.
Two methods:
• Linear interpolation – cut a ...
Axis movements: Caution!
Multiple axis movements are possible.
“Best Practice” is NOT to make a 3-axis
movement using one ...
Example 1: NC Block
Top View NC Block
.125 GRID
SPACES
Origin
(0,0)
Download Worksheet
Click here to open Practice Exercises
Worksheet Problem 1
.125 GRID
SPACES
Origin
(0,0)
E( , )
B( , )
C( , )
D( , )
A( , )
F( , )
G( , )H( , )
I( , ) J( , )
K( ...
Pause Lesson
Example 1: Program NC
N01 G90 G80 T00
N02 G00 X0 Y3.000 Z1.000
N03 M03 S1000
Example 1: Program NC
N01 G90 G80 T00
N02 G00 X0 Y3.000 Z1.000
N03 M03 S1000
N04 X.375 Y.250 Z1.000
N05 Z.100
N06 G01 Z-.1...
Example 1: Program cont’d
N08 X1.250 Y.250
N09 Y1.750
N10 G00 Z.100
N11 X2.625 Y.500
N12 GO1 Z-.100
N13 X2.375 Y2.50
N14 X...
Example 1: Program cont’d
N15 X1.750 Y.500
N16 Y1.500
N17 X2.000 Y1.750
N18 X2.375
N19 X2.625 Y1.500
Example 1, con.,
N20 G00 Z1.000
N21 X0 Y3.000
N22 M05
N23 M30
Example 2: PLTW Block
Worksheet Problem 2
Origin
.250 GRID
SPACE
Example 2: Top View
Origin
A( ,
)
E( ,
)
D( ,
)
C( ,
)
B( ,
)
I( , )
H( ,
)
G( , )
F( ,
)
.250 Grid Space
L( ,
)
K( ,
)
J(...
Pause Lesson
Example 2: PLTW
N01 G90 G80 T01
N02 G00 X0 Y0 Z1.000
N03 M03 S1000
N04 X.750 Y.500 Z1.000
N05 Z.100
N06 G01 Z-.250 F5.00
N...
Example 2: PLTW cont’d
N08 X1.250
N09 G02 X1.250 Y1.500 I1.250 J2.000
N10 G01 X.750
N11 G00 Z.100
N12 X2.250 Y2.500
N13 G0...
Example 2: Program cont’d
N15 X3.250
N16 G00 Z.100
N17 X4.000
N18 G01 Z-.250
N19 Y2.500
N20 X3.500
N21 X4.500
Example 2: PLTW cont’d
N22 G00 Z.100
N23 X5.000 Y2.500
N24 G01 Z-.250
N25 X5.500 Y.500
N26 X5.750 Y1.500
N27 X6.000 Y.500
...
Example 2: PLTW cont’d
N29 G00 Z1.000
N30 X0 Y0
N31 M05
N32 M30
Curriculum Alignment:
Unit 2: CNC Machining
Section 2.3 – CNC Machining
PowerPoint – Introduction to CNC
PowerPoint – CNC ...
References:
Oberg, E. & Jones F. D. & Horton, H. L. & Ryffell,
H. H. (2000). Machinery’s Handbook, 26th
ed., New York, NY:...
Credits:
Writer: Bob Arrendondo
Content Editor: Donna E. Scribner
Narration: Donna E. Scribner
PLTW Editor: Ed Hughes
Prod...
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  1. 1. Introduction to G-Code Programming Computer Integrated Manufacturing Unit 2: CNC Machining
  2. 2. In this lesson: Review Coordinate Geometry Basics Identify common Terminology Examine G and M - Code language Provide opportunities for Review and Practice
  3. 3. Rectangular Coordinate System X-axis Y-axis Origin .125 inch spacing A (X,Y)(1,.875)
  4. 4. (1.000,1.000 )(-1.125,.625) (-.375,-.500) (.750,-1.000) Ordered Pairs A B C D
  5. 5. 3D Coordinate System (X,Y,Z) X-axis Z- axis Y-axis
  6. 6. Basic Machine Axes: 3 axis Milling Machines: 3 axis X – axis (table left and right) Y – axis (table in and out) Z – axis (usually the spindle axis)
  7. 7. Additional Axes A – axis (angular axis about X - axis) B – axis (angular axis about Y – axis) C – axis (angular axis about Z – axis) U – axis (secondary axis parallel to X) V – axis (secondary axis parallel to Y) W – axis (secondary axis parallel to Z)
  8. 8. Milling Machines: 4 axis
  9. 9. Terminology NC – Numerical Control CNC – Computer Numerical Control DNC – Direct Numerical Control APT – Automatic Programmed Tool CAD – Computer Aided Design CAM – Computer Aided Manufacturing CIM – Computer Integrated Manufacturing
  10. 10. Download Code Sheet Click here to open Code Sheet
  11. 11. G - Code Programming G – Code Programming Originally called the “Word Address” programming format. Processed one line at a time sequentially.
  12. 12. Common Format of a Block Sequence # Preparatory Function Dimension Words Feed Rate Spindle Function Tool Function Misc. Function N50 G90 G01 X1.40Y2.25 F10 S1500 T01 M03 Individual Words
  13. 13. Word Address 1 N – Sequence or line number A tag that identifies the beginning of a block of code. It is used by operators to locate specific lines of a program when entering data or verifying the program operation. G – Preparatory function G words specify the mode in which the milling machine is to move along its programmed axes. Reserved Code Words Worksheet N – Sequence or line number G – Preparatory function Dimension Words: X – Y – Z –
  14. 14. Word Address 2 Dimension Words X – Distance or position in X direction Y – Distance or position in Y direction Z – Distance or position in Z direction M – Miscellaneous functions M words specify CNC machine functions not related to dimensions or axial movements.
  15. 15. F – Feed rate (inches per minute or millimeters per minute) Rate at which cutting tool moves along an axis. S – Spindle speed (rpm – revolutions per minute) Controls spindle rotation speed. T – Tool number Specifies tool to be selected. Word Address 3
  16. 16. I – Circular cutting reference for x axis J – Circular cutting reference for y axis K – Circular cutting reference for z axis Word Address 4
  17. 17. G Word G words or codes tell the machine to perform certain functions. Most G words are modal which means they remain in effect until replaced by another modal G code.
  18. 18. Common G Codes G00 – Rapid positioning mode Tool is moved along the shortest route to programmed X,Y,Z position. Usually NOT used for cutting. G01 – Linear Interpolation mode Tool is moved along a straight-line path at programmed rate of speed. G02 – Circular motion clockwise (cw) G03 – Circular motion counter clockwise (ccw)
  19. 19. Common G Codes, con., G17 – XY plane G18 – XZ plane G19 – YZ plane G20 – Inch Mode G21 – Metric Mode G28 – Return to axis machine Zero (Home)
  20. 20. G Codes: G90, G91 G90 – Absolute Coordinate Reference References the next position from an absolute zero point which is set once for the entire program. G91 – Incremental Coordinate Reference References the next position from the previous position.
  21. 21. G Codes: Canned Cycles G80 – Cancel canned cycle G81 – Drilling cycle G83 – Peck drilling cycle G84 – Tapping cycle G85 – Boring cycle G86 – Boring cycle NOTE: A canned cycle stays in effect until cancelled by a G80.
  22. 22. Canned Cycles: G81 G81 – Drilling Cycle Feed to depth, rapid return Example of program code: N35 G81 X.500Y.500Z-1.000 R.100 F1.50 N36 X1.000Y1.500 N37 X1.500Y2.000 N38 G80
  23. 23. Canned Cycles: G83, G84 G83 – Peck Drilling Cycle Feed to an intermediate depth, rapid out, rapid back to just above previous depth, feed to next depth, rapid out, repeat until reaching full depth. G84 – Tapping Cycle This cycle creates internal threads in an existing hole. NOTE: One cannot over-ride the feed rate.
  24. 24. Canned Cycles: G85, G86 G85 - Boring Cycle Feed to depth, feed back out. G86 – Boring Cycle Feed to depth, rapid out.
  25. 25. G Codes: Cutter Compensation G40 – Cancel cutter diameter compensation. G41 – Cutter compensation left. G42 – Cutter compensation right.
  26. 26. M Word M words tell the machine to perform certain machine related functions, such as: turn spindle on/off, coolant on/off, or stop/end program. Professional Development ID Code: 6006
  27. 27. Common M words M00 – Programmed pause Automatically stops machine until operator pushes a button to resume program. M01 – Optional stop A stop acted upon by the machine when operator has signaled this command by pushing a button. M02 – End of program Stops program when all lines of code are completed. Must be last command in program.
  28. 28. M03 – Turn spindle on In clockwise direction M04 – Turn spindle on In counter clockwise direction M05 – Stop spindle Usually used prior to tool change or at end of program. M06 – Tool change Stops program and calls for a tool change, either automatically or manually. Common M words
  29. 29. M08 – Turns Accessory 1 on. M09 – Turns Accessory 1 off. M10 – Turns Accessory 2 on. M11 – Turns Accessory 2 off. M30 – End of program Similar to M02 but M30 will also “rewind” the program. Must be last statement in program. If used, DO NOT use M02. Common M words
  30. 30. Zero Points Part Zero – Used for absolute programming mode. – Usually a position on the part that all absolute coordinates are referenced to. – Changes with different parts and programs. Machine Zero or Machine Home Position – Fixed for each machine from the manufacturer. – Not changeable.
  31. 31. Cutter Path Generation Cutter path is generated by moving the tool from point to point. The points are previously defined from the part drawing dimensions. Each line of code will show the destination point of where the tool will go to.
  32. 32. Interpolation Method of determining intermediate points along a cutting path. Two methods: • Linear interpolation – cut a path along a specified angle at a specified feed rate. • Circular interpolation – cut a path along an arc or circle at a specified feed rate.
  33. 33. Axis movements: Caution! Multiple axis movements are possible. “Best Practice” is NOT to make a 3-axis movement using one line of code. Move to position using two axes, X,Y; then move the Z with an additional line of code.
  34. 34. Example 1: NC Block
  35. 35. Top View NC Block .125 GRID SPACES Origin (0,0)
  36. 36. Download Worksheet Click here to open Practice Exercises
  37. 37. Worksheet Problem 1 .125 GRID SPACES Origin (0,0) E( , ) B( , ) C( , ) D( , ) A( , ) F( , ) G( , )H( , ) I( , ) J( , ) K( , ) L( , )
  38. 38. Pause Lesson
  39. 39. Example 1: Program NC N01 G90 G80 T00 N02 G00 X0 Y3.000 Z1.000 N03 M03 S1000
  40. 40. Example 1: Program NC N01 G90 G80 T00 N02 G00 X0 Y3.000 Z1.000 N03 M03 S1000 N04 X.375 Y.250 Z1.000 N05 Z.100 N06 G01 Z-.100 F5.00 N07 Y1.750
  41. 41. Example 1: Program cont’d N08 X1.250 Y.250 N09 Y1.750 N10 G00 Z.100 N11 X2.625 Y.500 N12 GO1 Z-.100 N13 X2.375 Y2.50 N14 X2.000
  42. 42. Example 1: Program cont’d N15 X1.750 Y.500 N16 Y1.500 N17 X2.000 Y1.750 N18 X2.375 N19 X2.625 Y1.500
  43. 43. Example 1, con., N20 G00 Z1.000 N21 X0 Y3.000 N22 M05 N23 M30
  44. 44. Example 2: PLTW Block
  45. 45. Worksheet Problem 2 Origin .250 GRID SPACE
  46. 46. Example 2: Top View Origin A( , ) E( , ) D( , ) C( , ) B( , ) I( , ) H( , ) G( , ) F( , ) .250 Grid Space L( , ) K( , ) J( , ) P( , ) O( , ) N( , ) M( , ) Q( , )
  47. 47. Pause Lesson
  48. 48. Example 2: PLTW N01 G90 G80 T01 N02 G00 X0 Y0 Z1.000 N03 M03 S1000 N04 X.750 Y.500 Z1.000 N05 Z.100 N06 G01 Z-.250 F5.00 N07 Y2.500
  49. 49. Example 2: PLTW cont’d N08 X1.250 N09 G02 X1.250 Y1.500 I1.250 J2.000 N10 G01 X.750 N11 G00 Z.100 N12 X2.250 Y2.500 N13 G01 Z-.250 N14 Y.500
  50. 50. Example 2: Program cont’d N15 X3.250 N16 G00 Z.100 N17 X4.000 N18 G01 Z-.250 N19 Y2.500 N20 X3.500 N21 X4.500
  51. 51. Example 2: PLTW cont’d N22 G00 Z.100 N23 X5.000 Y2.500 N24 G01 Z-.250 N25 X5.500 Y.500 N26 X5.750 Y1.500 N27 X6.000 Y.500 N28 X6.500 Y2.500
  52. 52. Example 2: PLTW cont’d N29 G00 Z1.000 N30 X0 Y0 N31 M05 N32 M30
  53. 53. Curriculum Alignment: Unit 2: CNC Machining Section 2.3 – CNC Machining PowerPoint – Introduction to CNC PowerPoint – CNC Programming
  54. 54. References: Oberg, E. & Jones F. D. & Horton, H. L. & Ryffell, H. H. (2000). Machinery’s Handbook, 26th ed., New York, NY: Industrial Press Inc. Valentino, J.V. & Goldenberg, J. (2003). Introduction to Computer Numerical Control (CNC), 3rd ed., Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
  55. 55. Credits: Writer: Bob Arrendondo Content Editor: Donna E. Scribner Narration: Donna E. Scribner PLTW Editor: Ed Hughes Production: CJ Amarosa Video Production: CJ Amarosa Audio: CJ Amarosa Project Manager: Donna E. Scribner
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