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Generations of computers

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Generations of computers

  1. 1. Generations Of Computers By; Aaju Sunariya BCA Group 1 Roll no; 6039
  2. 2. What is a Computer? • A computer is an electronic device that manipulates information, or data. It has the ability to store, retrieve, and process data. You may already know that you can use a computer to type documents, send email, play games, and browse the Web.
  3. 3. Father of Computer • Charles Babbage (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English polymath. A mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer, Babbage originated the concept of a digital programmable computer. • Babbage is considered by some to be “Father of Computer".Babbage is credited with inventing the first mechanical computer.
  4. 4. Generations of Computers • There are 5 generations of computer; • First generation (1946 - 1956) • Second generation (1956 - 1963) • Third generation (1964 - 1971) • Fourth generation (1972 - 1980) • Fifth generation (1980 to present)
  5. 5. First Generation(1946-1956) • The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory. • They were often enormous and taking up entire room. • First generation computers relied on machine language. • They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions. • The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first- generation computing devices.
  6. 6. Advantages • It was used mostly for scientific applications. • Only vacuum tubes were used in these generation computers. • These generations computers were simple architecture. • Facility for storing information.
  7. 7. Disadvantages • The computers were very larger in size. • They consumed a large amount of energy. • They heated very soon due to thousands of vacuum tubes. • They were not very reliable. • Air conditioning is required. • Constant maintenance was required. • Not-portable. • Costly commercial production.
  8. 8. Second Generation(1956-1963) • During the late 1950s and 1960s, the interest in computer technology got fast, and the next generation of the computer, second, was introduced that replace vacuum tubes and used transistors. The computers made in the second generation were completely based upon transistors, not on vacuum tubes.
  9. 9. Advantages • Smaller in size as compared to the first generation computer. • The second-generation computers were more reliable. • Used less energy and were not heated as much as first- generation computer. • Wider commercial use. • Better portability as compared to the first generation computers
  10. 10. Disadvantages • The cooling system was required. • Constant maintenance required. • Commercial production was difficult. • Only used for specific purposes. • Costly and not versatile. • Punch cards were used for input. • Smaller than previous generation computers
  11. 11. Third Generation(1964-1971) • The computers of third generation used Integrated Circuits (ICs) in place of transistors. • A single IC has many transistors, resistors, and capacitors along with the associated circuitry.
  12. 12. Advantages • Smaller in size as compared to previous generations. • More reliable. • Used less energy. • Produced less heat as compared to the previous two generations of computers. ( ... • Better speed and could calculate data in nanoseconds. • Used fan for head discharge to prevent damage.
  13. 13. Disadvantages • Air conditioning was required. • The highly sophisticated technology required for the manufacturing of IC chips.
  14. 14. Forth Generation(1972-1980) • Main electronic component – very large-scale integration (VLSI) and microprocessor. • VLSI– thousands of transistors on a single microchip. • Memory – semiconductor memory (such as RAM, ROM, etc.) ... • Programming language – high level language (Python, C#, Java, JavaScript, Rust, Kotlin, etc.).
  15. 15. Advantages • They were developed for totally general purpose use (general-purpose computers). • Smaller in size and much reliable than other generations of computer. • The heat generation was negligible. • No cooling system required in many cases of the fourth- generation computer.
  16. 16. Disadvantages • The very advanced technology was required to fabricate to the ICs (Integrated Circuits). • High quality and reliable system or technology can only make the ICs. • Cooler is required (Fan) • The latest technology is required for the manufacturing of Microprocessors.
  17. 17. Fifth Generation(1980- Present) • The Fifth Generation Computer Systems was an initiative by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry • Begun in 1982, to create computers using massively parallel computing and logic programming. It was to be the result of a government/industry research project in Japan during the 1980s.
  18. 18. Advantages • Robotics. • Neural Networks. • Game Playing. • Development of expert systems to make decisions in real- life situations. • Natural language understanding and generation.
  19. 19. Disadvantages • They tend to be sophisticated and complex tools. • They can give more power to companies to watch what you are doing and even allow them to infect your computer.
  20. 20. Thank you For Your Attention

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