By; Aaju Sunariya
BCA Group 1
Roll no; 6039
What is a Computer?
• A computer is an electronic device that manipulates
information, or data. It has the ability to store, retrieve, and
process data. You may already know that you can use a
computer to type documents, send email, play games, and
browse the Web.
Father of Computer
• Charles Babbage (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871)
was an English polymath. A mathematician, philosopher,
inventor and mechanical engineer, Babbage originated the
concept of a digital programmable computer.
• Babbage is considered by some to be “Father of
Computer".Babbage is credited with inventing the first
Generations of Computers
• There are 5 generations of computer;
• First generation (1946 - 1956)
• Second generation (1956 - 1963)
• Third generation (1964 - 1971)
• Fourth generation (1972 - 1980)
• Fifth generation (1980 to present)
• The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and
magnetic drums for memory.
• They were often enormous and taking up entire room.
• First generation computers relied on machine language.
• They were very expensive to operate and in addition to
using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat,
which was often the cause of malfunctions.
• The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-
generation computing devices.
• It was used mostly for scientific applications.
• Only vacuum tubes were used in these generation
• These generations computers were simple architecture.
• Facility for storing information.
• The computers were very larger in size.
• They consumed a large amount of energy.
• They heated very soon due to thousands of vacuum tubes.
• They were not very reliable.
• Air conditioning is required.
• Constant maintenance was required.
• Costly commercial production.
• During the late 1950s and 1960s, the interest in
computer technology got fast, and the next
generation of the computer, second, was
introduced that replace vacuum tubes and used
transistors. The computers made in the second
generation were completely based upon
transistors, not on vacuum tubes.
• Smaller in size as compared to the first generation
• The second-generation computers were more reliable.
• Used less energy and were not heated as much as first-
• Wider commercial use.
• Better portability as compared to the first generation
• The cooling system was required.
• Constant maintenance required.
• Commercial production was difficult.
• Only used for specific purposes.
• Costly and not versatile.
• Punch cards were used for input.
• Smaller than previous generation computers
• The computers of third generation used Integrated Circuits
(ICs) in place of transistors.
• A single IC has many transistors, resistors, and capacitors
along with the associated circuitry.
• Smaller in size as compared to previous generations.
• More reliable.
• Used less energy.
• Produced less heat as compared to the previous two
generations of computers. ( ...
• Better speed and could calculate data in nanoseconds.
• Used fan for head discharge to prevent damage.
• Air conditioning was required.
• The highly sophisticated technology required for the
manufacturing of IC chips.
• Main electronic component – very large-scale integration
(VLSI) and microprocessor.
• VLSI– thousands of transistors on a single microchip.
• Memory – semiconductor memory (such as RAM, ROM,
• Programming language – high level language (Python, C#,
• They were developed for totally general purpose use
• Smaller in size and much reliable than other generations of
• The heat generation was negligible.
• No cooling system required in many cases of the fourth-
• The very advanced technology was required to fabricate to
the ICs (Integrated Circuits).
• High quality and reliable system or technology can only
make the ICs.
• Cooler is required (Fan)
• The latest technology is required for the manufacturing of
• The Fifth Generation Computer Systems was an initiative by
Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry
• Begun in 1982, to create computers using massively parallel
computing and logic programming. It was to be the result
of a government/industry research project in Japan during
• Neural Networks.
• Game Playing.
• Development of expert systems to make decisions in real-
• Natural language understanding and generation.
• They tend to be sophisticated and complex tools.
• They can give more power to companies to watch what you
are doing and even allow them to infect your computer.